(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Annual Report of the Inspectors of the State Primary School at Monson, 1873-78"

jm-?/ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/annualreportofin00mass_2 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 25. 



TWENTIETH ANNUAL EEPOET 







THE INSPECTOKS 



OF THE 



"STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL 



M O 1ST S O 1ST 



October, 1873. 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS, 

Corner of Milk and Federal Streets. 

1874. 



(JIommontDcaltl) of Ji1a00acl)tt0Ctt0. 



INSPECTOES' EEPORT. 



In making the Twentieth Annual Eeport of this institution, 
we find little that is new to communicate, or important to 
suggest. It is the first full year of the State Primary School 
relieved of an almshouse department and its embarrassments. 
There are a few lingering mementoes of the latter, in the 
inmates sent here for help and support from the state alms- 
house, but they are so few and so isolated in the establish- 
ment, that they are not apparently detrimental to the school. 

General good health has prevailed among the inmates dur- 
ing the past year. * The hospital has had plenty of spare 
room, and the bills for medical supplies have been small. A 
plain, wholesome diet, with plenty of fresh air, pure water 
and daily exercise are the provisions made to thwart disease 
of victims, and build up good physical constitutions. 

At the time of making our last annual report, October 1, 
1872, there were 398 persons in the institution, — 341 children 
in the school, and 57 remaining here for support and tempo- 
rary custody. 

The admissions since that time have been 267. Sixteen of 
these were women, and 137 children, sent here by the Board 
of State Charities ; 71 came from 1 juvenile courts, 41 were 
returned from families where they had been placed, and two 
were born in the institution. 

From this number, 138 children have been placed out in 
families, 48 have been discharged by the Board of State Char- 
ities, 11 have deserted, 6 have died, 5 boys have been trans- 



• 



4 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

ferred to the reform school, 2 to the state almshouse, 1 girl 
to the industrial school, and 1 woman to the insane asylum at 
Northampton, making the total discharges 212, and leaving 
453 now in the institution. 

Of this number, 290 boys and 110 girls belong to the 
school proper, and 53 other persons, viz., 4 men, 30 women, 
10 boys and 9 girls are here for support and temporary 
custody. 

The average number supported through the year is 424, 
and the cost per annum for each is $2.13. 

While the average number supported through the year is 7 
less than the number supported last year, it will seem that 
the number in the institution at this time is 55 Jarger than at 
the same date last year. This increase is wholly in school 
children. The reason for this is the larger number admitted 
from juvenile ^courts, and the smaller number placed out in 
families. Last year only 24 came here from the courts ; this 
year the number is 71. Last year 168 children were placed 
out in families ; this year, 138. 

In our last report, the subject of introducing a branch o 
labor for the boys was spoken of. Last winter, one roon 
was fitted up for the employment of sixty boys, at seating 
chairs, and it has operated so well, that it is proposed t< 
occupy another room of the same size for the same business 
The boys are required to labor four hours each day, and b; 
allowing them one-fourth of what they earn, they feel ai 
interest in their work, and are encouraged to accomplish a 
much as possible. These boys are also required to atten 
school three hours each day, and the alternation from labor to 
study keeps them mentally and physically fresh and vigorous 
for both. 

The school is now in a condition to do more for the advance- 
ment of its pupils than it has been able to do before. Con- 
veniences and improvements for their comfort have been made 
in all the apartments occupied by them. The teachers are 
selected with great care, and are required to instruct in the 
modern way, instead of in the way practised by teachers of 
a former generation. The school divisions, six in number, 
are too crowded, and another division must soon be estab- 
lished, unless more children are placed out in families. 



1873.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 5 

The average attendance of pupils during the year has been 
350, and the average age, ten years. 

The children sent here by the juvenile courts are older, 
more active in intellect, and a little more inclined to mis- 
chievous habits than those who come from the state almshouse, 
but while they require a little firmer discipline, they give a 
higher grade of scholarship to the school, show more energy 
in the workshop, and inspire ambition among the other 
children. 

If the buildings were arranged so that classification could 
be effected, the usefulness of the school would be much 
greater. As now situated, the good and the bad mix together 
in work, play and study, and at night scores of them herd for 
sleep in a single dormitory. 

There are among the children those who are incapacitated 
from common labor by some misfortune. These need special 
instruction to fit them for self-support. If the one-armed or 
one-legged boy can be fitted for the business of an accountant, 
a proof-reader or a telegraph operator, his future subsistence 
is provided for out of the institution. If the deformed can 
be taught any special branch of labor suited to their infirmi- 
ties, they also will soon provide for themselves. If they are 
not thus taught, when the time for their stay in the school 
expires, — at the age of 16, — they must be transferred to the 
state almshouse at Tewksbury. The lower in the scale <^f 
intelligence and physical capacity we find these children, the 
more must be done to raise them to a higher level ; the more 
unfortunate they happen to be, the greater must be the efforts 
to provide for their necessities, that they may become citizens 
and supporters of the Commonwealth, instead of criminals 
and paupers. The experience of this institution in educating, 
training and providing homes for such children has demon- 
strated the possibility of accomplishing a greater work in the 
same direction. 

We have, in previous reports, spoken of the propriety of 
paying families for supporting some of the children, and we 
renew the recommendation. Many families could be found 
who would take them for a smaller yearly sum than it now 
costs to support them here. This system would apply more 
particularly to the young children who are seldom taken, 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct, 



because they are too small to pay their way. A child once 
placed out, as suggested, would not be a permanent charge. 
As the child grew older, the compensation could be lessened, 
till it ceased entirely. Meantime, the family and child would 
become attached to each other, and as neither would desire 
separation, the child would secure a permanent home. 

The propriety of indenturing children is sometimes called 
in question. It is found that with those under the age of 
fourteen or fifteen years, the usual obligation required from 
those taking them has operated well. It is to the advantage 
of children to feel that some one has authority to control 
them, and to stand in the relation of guardian toward them. 
The State, by this arrangement, holds the master responsible 
for the support of the child in sickness and health, for his 
education in the public schools, and his proper training; and 
he cannot be cast off without the consent of the indenturing 
party. When there is no such obligation, children are apt to 
assert their own independence, and shift from place to place, 
or the master to send them adrift on some trivial pretext wl 
their services are not in demand. Boys suffered to go in t 
manner are pretty certain to become roving in their hab 
unsettled in purpose, and easy victims of temptation. 

Children above the ages mentioned have so short a timt 
remain (no child being indentured beyond the age of 18) , 1 
it is considered best to let them out on verbal agreemei 
from year to year. 



Officers and their Salaries. 
Horace P. Wakefield, Superintendent, 
Charles F. Foster, Ass' I Superintendent, Chap 

lain and Principal, 
John N. Lacy, Engineer, . 
William P. Button, Baker, , , . 
George H. Fisherdick, Farmer, 
Horatio H. Fisherdick, Assistant-Farmer, 
George H. Stone, Assistant- Farmer, . 
Uriah Manning, Assistant, 
Abel Jackson, Supervisor, 
Abraham S. Barnard, Watchman, 
George W. Keyes, Teamster, 



$1,800 00 


1,400 


00 


1,200 


00 


780 


00 


600 


00 


480 00 


360 00 


360 


00 


360 


00 


360 


00 


360 00 



1873.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25, 



Milton E. Daniels, Assistant- Supervisor, 

James Skevington, Assistant- Engineer, 

J. M. Sisk, Driver, .... 

Climena Wakefield, Clerk, 

Mary B. Wakefield, Matron, 

Susan C. Yarrington, Assistant-Matron, 

Mary W. Richmond, Laundress, 

Charlotte A. St. John, JSTurse, 

Anna J. Patten, Seamstress, 

Lucy E. E. Hill, Teacher, 

Mary E. Witt, Teacher, . 

Clara Go wing, Teacher, 

Harriet E. Darte, Teacher, 

Ada O. Copeland, Teacher, 

Myra A. Smith, Teacher, . 

Ida E. Willey, Teacher, . 

Annie C. Gallivan, Teacher in Chair- Shop 



Inspectors, 



Gordon M. Fisk, 
Eleazar Porter, . 
Lewis N. Gilbert, 



$360 00 
300 00 
360 ©0 
500 00 
300 00 
300 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 



Takes no salary. 

. $160 00 

160 00 



Inventory of 1873. 
[Taken by D. B. Bishop, of Palmer.] 
Live stock, 

Products of farm, ..... 
Machinery and mechanical tools, 
Carriages and agricultural tools, • . 
Beds and bedding (inmates' department), 
Other property (inmates' department) , 
Personal property (Superintendent's dep't), 
Ready-made clothing, boots and shoes, 
Dry goods, 

Groceries and provisions, 
Drugs and medicines, 
Fuel, . . ... 
Library and school-books, 



Total Personal Property (Carried forward), $61,767 81 



. $6,032 00 


7,313 


59 


. 12,713 


25 


. 2,741 


54 


6,301 


19 


. 4,365 


65 


7,171 


00 


. 5,526 


03 


1,250 


03 


1,957 09 


422 


13 


5,534 


29 


442 


02 



8 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Amount brought forward, . . . $61,767 81 

Buildings, .... $102,760 00 

Land, 18,778 69 

Total Real Estate, . . 121,538 69 



Total Real and Personal Estate, . .$183,306 50 

Twenty years of labor and improvements have brought the 
farm into a high state of cultivation. The products of the 
year now on hand, amount, in value, as estimated by the 
annual appraiser, to $7,313.59. The expense in carrying on 
the farm has been considerable, as we are chiefly dependent 
on hired help for its cultivation ; and, as the operations about 
the institution and upon the farm are closely connected, the 
profits of the latter have not been clearly demonstrated. In 
the year to come, it is proposed to keep an accurate farming 
account, which will set at rest all doubts and questions in 
regard to this matter. 

Improvements on the farm and about the buildings have 
been made during the year, without employing much extra 
help for that purpose. A Resolve of the legislature of 1872 # 
allowing $5,584.10 for the purchase of land, putting in gas, 
and making improvements, was found to be $1,000 short, on 
applying for the latter amount for improvements, the appro- 
priation bill having failed to furnish what the Resolve provided 
for. 

The Superintendent's report, which follows our own, gives 
full particulars concerning* what has been accomplished on the 
farm and about the buildings. It also gives a financial state- 
ment, and. an account of what has transpired in the Physician's 
department. 

The Chaplain and Principal's report, which we also annex, 
gives interesting details of the school, and the means used to 
promote the moral and mental welfare of the boys and girls 
in his department. 

The institution, we believe, is accomplishing a great and 
good work, and its fruits may be seen in hundreds of youth 
growing up in community into respectable and useful men 
and women. There is still greater promise in its future. 



1873.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— ]S T o. 25. 9 

Much more must be done to instruct and train the little 
waifs who float in here from the haunts of poverty, vice and 
wretchedness ; and while the Commonwealth is generously 
furnishing means for their reform, education and happiness, 
they are preparing themselves to rise up in the future and 
" call her blessed." 

GORDON M. FISK, 
ELEAZAR PORTER, 
LEWIS N. GILBERT, 

inspectors. 

State Primary School, Monson, October 1, 1873. 



10 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT AND PHYSICIAN. 



To the Inspectors of 'the State Primary School at Monson. 
• 
Gentlemen : — Another year has come and gone. Scarcely- 
had I entered on its duties, before I am summoned to render 
an account at its close. I herewith present for your inspec- 
tion, the Twentieth Annual Report of this Institution, the 
eighth since the establishment of the Primary School, the 
sixth I have had the honor to submit, but only the first of the 
State Primary School proper, since its connection with the 
almshouse was dissevered. I propose briefly to detail th 
workings, the improvements, and the condition of the Stat 
Primary School for the current year. 

Receipts. 
Cash received from unexpended appropriation of 

1872, . . . $17,722 I 

Cash received from annual appropriation of 1873, 29,325 4 
Cash received from special appropriation for 

land and gas, ...... 1,649 40 



Receipts from all appropriations, . . $48,697 48 
Receipts from all other sources, . . . 640 35 



Total receipts, . . . . . . $49,337 83 

Expenditures. 

Salaries, * $12,813 30 

Provisions, ....... 12,945 14 

Other expenses, 21,289 64 



Total current expenditures (Carried for' d), $47,048 08 



1873.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 11 

Amount brought forward, . . . $47,048 08 

Cash paid from special appropriation for land and 



gas, .... 

Total expenditures, . 
Cash paid into state treasury, 

Total cash payments, 



The number of persons in the institution, Octo- 
ber 1st, 1872, was 



1,649 40 

. $48,697 48 
640 35 

. $49,337 83 



398 



In State Primary School proper, 




341 


For support and temporary custody, . . 




57 


Total admissions during the year ending October 




1st* 1873, . H 






Transferred from Tewksbury, . 




147 


Women, ..... 


. 16 




Boys, 


81 




Girls, . . 


50 




Sent by court, . 




71 


Boys, . . ... 


56 




Girls, . . . . . 


15 




Eeturned from places, 




41 


Boys, 


29 




Girls, . .... 


12 




Admitted by Board of State Charities, 




6 


Boys, 


6 




Births, ...... 




2 


Girls, 


2 





267 



Total number of persons in the institution during 
the year ending October 1st, 1873, 



665 



Total discharges during 


the 


year 


ending 


October 


1st, 1873, 


. . 


. 


, 




, . 


Placed on 


trial, 


, 


. 




- t . 


Boys, 


. 


. 


. 




101 


Girls, 


. . 


. 


. 




. 37 



212 



138 



12 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Discharged by Board of State Charities, 




48 


Women, 


. . 


11 




Boys, . 








. 




. 19 




Girls, . 








. , 




18 




Deserted, 








. 






11 


Boys, . 








, 




11 




Died, 








, 






6 


Males, . 








. , 




4 




Females, 








, 




2 




Transferred to Westborough, 


. 






5 


Transferred to Tewksbury, 


. 






2 


Transferred to Northampton, 


. 






1 


Transferred to ~ 


L,anca 


ster, 




. 






1 



Total number of persons remaining in the insti- 
tution, October 1, 1873, .... 

In State Primary School proper, 

Boys, 290 

Girls, 110 

For support and temporary custody, . 

Men, 4 

Women, 30 

Boys, . . . . - . . .10 

Girls, . . ... . .9 



453 



40§ 



53 



Average number supported in the institution for 

the year ending October 1, 1873, . . . 424 

Average cost per week for each person, . . $2.13 

Average number in the Primary School, . . 369 



When I submitted my report at the close of the last year, 
we had just commenced lighting the institution with gas, 
manufactured from gasolene by the Excelsior Gas Machine. 
For a time during the winter we were incommoded by poor 
material from which gas was manufactured, from inability to 
obtain any material, from insufficiency of pressure, from 
obstruction to the flow of gasolene, or from some imperfect 
working of the machine itself. 

The machine met with a mishap on its way from the man- 
'ufactory to its destination. Whether it was injured or not I 



1873.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 13 

cannot state, but from whatever source arose our trouble, it 
has been remedied by alterations made, and the substitution 
of another machine by the company, since which it has given 
satisfaction, and all the bills have been liquidated. It gives 
a clear, steady, bright and smokeless light, unaffected by 
temperature, and the amount of light can be increased or 
diminished at the will of the operator, by the combination of 
more or less atmospheric air with the gasolene vapor. 

The cost of light generated from gasolene is greater than 
that from kerosene, which is cheaper than any other light, 
except that furnished by the sun ; but I am confident it is 
cheaper than any gas manufactured from coal, furnished by 
any of our cities. 

The whole cost of putting in the apparatus, building, 
machine, tank, piping, fixtures, etc., was $2,584.10. There 
have been so many interruptions, from various causes, that 
the cost per annum of lighting the institution in this manner 
cannot be definitely stated. The cost of gasolene purchased 
during the year has been $406.11. I think it would be fair 
to estimate a consumption of fifty barrels per annum, which, 
at 25 cents per gallon, would cost about $600. 

Since the last report was submitted, in which it was stated 
that a building had been removed, in order that a better 
entrance to the rear yard might be made, concrete walks have 
been laid, a new avenue constructed, and the yard has been 
graded, affording us another nice lawn in the rear of our 
buildings. 

One part of the lower story of this building -was fitted last 
winter for a shop, to be used by boys for seating chairs. 
Here we employ about sixty boys. They began work in 
February, and although they all, with two exceptions, had to 
learn the trade, we have filled more than 7,000 seats. The 
seats and cane are furnished, and transported both ways, by 
C. H. Greenwood's Sons of Gardner. For the filling of 
them they allow eight cents per chair. 

After each boy has had' practice sufficient to fill a seat in a 
workmanlike manner, he is allowed two cents for each seat 
he fills. Each boy regards himself as a workman of the 
establishment. It operates as an incentive to activity, and a 
larger sum has been realized by the State than there was 



14 PRIMAKY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

before the boys were made partners in the concern, and a 
healthy rivalry among the boys is encouraged. An account 
is opened with each boy, and he is permitted to draw and 
spend his earnings for anything not injurious that he may 
desire, or deposit the same in an institution for savings, as 
many of them do. The State has received for this work, 
$477.5*6, while the boys have earned for themselves, $101.03. 
Each boy attends school a part of the day, and the ambition 
and energy waked up in the shop follows them to the school- 
room. This work has so far exceeded my expectations in 
beneficial results, that I intend to fit another shop in a few 
weeks for the accommodation of fifty more boys. 

In the basement of the return wing of the building, adja- 
cent to the bathing-room for females, there has been fitted a 
play and wash-room, 36 feet by 30, for the girls, heated with 
steam and lighted with gas, similar to the room prepared for 
the boys last year. This conduces to the convenience and 
health of the girls, especially in stormy weather, and on cold 
mornings and evenings. 

Another iron tank of over 800 gallons capacity has bee 
placed in the boys' attic. This takes the place of one line 
with lead, placed there when the institution was openec 
which has, during my administration, been distinguished pa] 
ticularly for its wonderful capacity for leaking. 

During the year, I have had to expend some hundreds o 
dollars for the erection of a new fence around our yards. Ir 
one of our autumnal gales, last fall, some rods in various 
places were prostrated, which had to be replaced at once. I 
intended to make the old one do for this season, but found I 
could not. The new one is completed around the boys' yard, 
but around the girls' it is still in process of erection. 

Since the courts have furnished us with apart of the rising 
generation who come under their surveillance, it has been 
necessary for us to use greater vigilance, and with open eyes 
to keep a sharp look-out, lest our skill in thwarting should 
compare unfavorably with the culprits' ingenuity in effecting 
escapes. The vigilance that will guard against all their con- 
trivances, plots and. schemes, must be eternal. Any fence 
they can scale, climb, undermine or batter down, unless a 
pair of eyes like a battery constantly bears on them. 



1873.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 15 

We have lost several boys by removing windows, swinging 
to the ground by bed-clothes tied together, through ventila- 
tors and chimneys, in the night, during the absence of the 
watchman. These eagle-eyed youngsters', in the time for 
sleep, although they are visited twice each hour, watch the 
watchman, and execute their preconcerted plans with won- 
derful celerity during his absence at the boiler-room, the 
barn or the hospital. 

From the truism "set a rogue to catch a rogue," I have 
learned a lesson, and am now profiting from the experiment. 
For some weeks past, certain boys who are shrewd enough 
to know the sly intrigues of these fellows, but who can now 
be trusted, and whose sympathies are now on the side of good 
order, have been put on the watch, with good results, for 
there has not been an escape since this watch was set. A few 
trusty boys take turns watching half a night each, so that the 
dormitories have one pair of eyes always open. For this ser- 
vice they are paid, using and investing their money the same 
as that earned in the chair-shop. The boys are pleased with 
the confidence reposed in them, are anxious for the chance, 
the results are beneficial, and the investment is a paying one. 

The hog-house, when built, was planted, but it never came 
up. Having waited till the floor was either all worn out or 
rotted out, I proceeded to raise and put a cellar under the 
same. The pens were in that condition that you never could 
be sure whether you would find the inmates in or out, but 
they are so constructed now that if you find them out, you 
may be sure they did not root out, the pens having been 
paved with flags or bowlders of first-class magnitude. 

The building, 34 feet by 24, used as a pest-house, but which 
has not been occupied since I came, nor for years before, I 
have taken down, and having placed another story under it, 
have put up the same again near the barn, to be used, one 
floor for a storehouse, and the other as a repository for agri- 
cultural implements and storage of garden and farming tools. 

A small building away from other buildings has been fitted 
up for the storage of bones, a grain-room has been partitioned 
off in the new barn, an additional drain has been laid in each 
cowyard, to prevent the deterioration of manures, and also 
to give comfort to our cattle, culverts have been laid, walls 



16 PRIMAKY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

built, stones picked, bushes mowed, and improvements made, 
as time and opportunity permitted. 

After haying last year, I ploughed four acres of pasture, 
immediately adjacent to the boys' yard, cleared the same of 
stones, surrounded it with a heavy wall, and this season 
planted it with potatoes. In the spring, I laid some wall and 
moved some fence, throwing into pasture some precipitous 
ridges that were inclosed in our mowing-fields, and also en- 
closing some of the interval land. This change gives us 
about three more acres of land for pasturage, throwing into 
this pasture a supply of water. 

Since haying, I have opened ditches for the purpose of 
drainage, through the interval land lately purchased of A. J. 
Northrop. I have also turned over six acres of this land, and 
re-seeded the same. To this land I have applied different 
kinds of fertilizers. I have used barn-yard manure, loam 
saturated with urine, coal ashes used in privies, ashes from 
the leach, Bradley's super-phosphate, fish guano, Ward's grass 
fertilizer, and phosphate made from ground bone, and manu- 
factured on our premises. The seed has taken well, the grass 
now looks finely, but the comparative merits of the fertilizers 
used cannot be ascertained till another season. 

Late in the fall of last year, I moved a small building which 
stood at some distance from the barn, and which was con- 
structed for the storage of hay, boarded, shingled, and 
attached the same to the barn standing on the same land. I 
also built a yard for cattle, where our colts and young an- 
imals were herded the early part of the winter. 

In November, I purchased four Ayrshire cows and two 
heifers. I have raised from my Ayrshire cows, one bull and 
four heifer calves, and I now have a herd of sixteen thorough- 
breds. For several years I had driven our stock to the East 
Hampden Agricultural Fair, for exhibition only. Last year 
I offered the stock, horses, colts, bulls, cows, and young 
cattle for premiums, and was fortunate enough to secure fif- 
teen premiums, amounting to the sum of fifty-nine dollars. 

I have just constructed a road to our ice-house. Formerly 
we had to pass through one of our best mowing-lots. This 
way, for a great part of the year, was almost impassable, and 
the land was rendered nearly useless. To avoid this, I have 



1873.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT- No. 25. 17 

built a more direct way, filling up a ravine which had marred 
the beauty of the adjacent fields. Many large stones were in 
the immediate vicinity, and the ice-pond had become nearly 
filled with stones and gravel which had washed into it since 
its construction. It was desirable that the former should be 
removed, and absolutely necessary that the latter should be 
disposed of. In building the road, the rocks in the vicinity 
have been used in the construction of a wall and culvert, and 
more than one hundred loads of stone, sand and gravel have 
been carted there from the pond, and an equal amount of mud 
has been taken therefrom to be utilized in our hog-pens and 
stables. 

The crops for the year are above the average. The root- 
crop looks very promising. The drought of the early part 
of the season cut short the first crop of hay, but timely rains 
since that was gathered have increased the second, so that 
both crops come within less than two tons of those of last 
year. There is a good yield of potatoes, one of our staple 
articles of diet; another staple, the cabbage, is a failure. 
Last year our crop was better than our neighbors ; this year, 
in the same field, although not on the same spot, with the 
same manure and the same culture, it is a failure. It was a 
grave mistake. They headed at the wrong end, or footed 
rather than headed. 

By chapter 21 of the Eesolves of 1872, there was allowed 
$5,584.10, "to provide for the purchase of land, and for im- 
provements at the State Primary School at Monson," but the 
appropriation bill, chapter 346 of the same year, according 
to the construction of the auditor, provided for the payment 
of $4,584.10 only, leaving $1,000 allowed for improvements 
to be hereafter provided for. This was an oversight that will 
undoubtedly be remedied when the attention of the legisla- 
lature is called to the omission. 

During the year we have had no epidemic, and have been 
peculiarly exempt from acute disease. Many cases of chronic 
hereditary disease are continually with us, which must be so, 
since all the friendless waifs and deserted wards of the State, 
of suitable age to attend school, are gathered here, if, perad- 
venture, disease may relax her deadly grasp, so that they 
may, even for a short time, have an opportunity with their 



18 PKIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

more fortunate companions, of obtaining the elements of 
knowledge gained in school. 

During the prevalence of small-pox in many of the cities 
and towns in this Commonwealth, I procured some vaccine 
matter directly from the cow, and inserted the same in one of 
our yearling heifers. From matter thus obtained, I vacci- 
nated once and again every child in the institution. In a 
great majority of cases it operated more or less, even on 
many who had good marks of former vaccination. Hitherto, 
since I have been here, we have had the good fortune to 
escape the visitation of this direful scourge. 

We have' had two births in the institution during the year, 
both females. Their mothers were sent here with another 
child from the state almshouse. 

The number of deaths during the year was six ; four males 
and two females. Three were members of the Primary 
School, and three were sent here for support. 

Elizabeth Battles, eleven years of age, died January 4. 
She had a lingering sickness, and her symptoms in the last 
stages of the disease strongly resembled those of cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. 

Mary Mahoney, aged 38, died March 29, of phthisis. She 
was sent here with her child, and scarcely left her bed after 
her arrival. 

John Fitzgerald, six years of age, died July 17, of dysen- 
tery, with symptoms of cholera. He came from the alms- 
house sick, and lived only one week after his arrival. 

John Murphy, aged sixteen, died August 8, of necrosis, 
terminating in diarrhoea. He had been placed out for several 
years, but returned with his tibia completely honey-combed. 

Samuel Griswold, nine years of age, died August 15, of 
disease of the spine. He had been a cripple and deformed 
for years. 

Michael Fitzgerald, two years old, died September 24. 
From his entrance, he seemed to have no life or stamina of 
constitution, and died of gangrene of the lungs. 

Gentlemen, — I am happy to say to you that the institu- 
tion is in a prosperous condition, that the schools are under 
good discipline, and that the children are buoyant and happy, 



1873.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 19 

many of them appreciating the efforts made for their amuse- 
ment, comfort and well-being. Our aim is to treat them as 
children, fast approaching manhood, destined in a short time 
to be men and women, caring for themselves, and exerting an 
influence either for evil or for good on those around them, 
as they follow their evil propensities, or successfully combat 
and overpower them. 

I wish to tender my thanks to all the teachers and officers, 
who have faithfully performed their duties, and seconded my 
efforts in promoting the interests of the institution, and for 
any success achieved would cheerfully award them their full 
share of merit. 

HOEACE P. WAKEFIELD, 

Superintendent and Physician. 

State Primary School, October 1, 1873. 



20 



PEIMAEY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



tH tJH O i— 1 


CO 


iO^CKj^)HOCOl>iOOOt^ 


o 


to 


WNHH 


t> 


t>l>.<M<O000000GMCNiO 


o 


CO 


OCOC5N 


OS 


COOCNCO*OOCOr-IOS^ 


o 


o 


CO O CO CM 


^H 


COCCNHHiQiOHON 


o 


■«* 


Oi CO ^ r-l 


CO 


HOOHCDiOCDCOtMNCD 


o 


CO 










۩= 


tHcOCOCO 


© 


(N H (N (M CO CO CO CO CO iO 


o 


۩= 


CM 

4^= 


«&* l-H 














© • 












rd 










+3 


.... 








C+H . 

o 












t? 










d • 

CO 

o3 

© 


of 




of 




£ • 


.2 oT 




.2 © 




© 


n3 Z 2 £ 




-rs^ssi^sis a 




*d 


d o3 




d c3 




+3 . 


for su 
edbal 




g 2 


» 


d£ 

3? 


rcJ T3 




-75 'g 




•3 d 




•3 d 




s.1 


TO <d 




c3 <d 




J?" & 

'S © 

o3 d 




S^ ft 




' _H o. 

11 

o o 




^ " " " M 

» o 

o3 d 




o d 




a d 




f>i 




^ 




ffl 




tt 




M 










„ 


i-rcTr-rr-r 




H o6" H O' H 6" H H d" O" 




o 


• CO CO .CO CO 
01 




• COCMCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 




CO 


187 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 




2 d -o £ ?-' %> d £> W) ft 

•-5 P^ S << ^ Hj Hj <^ 0Q 




+3 

ft 

© 




CO 


CO 


O 


o 


iO 


t> 


t^ 


O 


o 


CO 


Oi 


CI 


O 


o 


o 


^H 


"* 


O 


o 


-* 


00 


co 


o 


o 


co 


O 


o 


iO 


io 


<3©= 


CM 


CM 


tH 


-* 




€©» 


«&= 


#&* 


<[©» 




CM 








of 


t^ 








© 


CO 








© 


tH 








d 


«w 








o 


O 




. 




02 


d 








*H 


^o 








<U 


"■+3 




„ 




5 


pria 




H3 

a 




o 

a 


2 




"fi 




o 


^ 




ft 




«*H 


s- 




8 
ft 




H3 

© 


«w 




ft 




t> 


o 




o3 




'© 


© 




3 




a 

CD 


d 









e3 




O 




rd 










CO 


"os 




3 




o3 


42 




o3 




o 


o 




O 




o 


H 




H 




H 






„ 




„ 


r-T 




. °o 




o 


8 




R" 




CO 


S - 




S^ 




ft 


o 




© 




© 







Ph 




02 1 



1873,] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



21 



e 

^ 
i- 

«, 



5-. 



5? 



o 


o 


1—1 


rH 


o 


-tf 


o 


^H 


o 


OS 




OS 


o 


Tfl 




-* 


'"1 


iO 




CO 


T-T 






T—l 


<=©■ 






^= 










M 








P 








o3 








+=> 








r& 








P 

o5 
CD 








p 


of 






3 


CD 






O 
o3 


B 


^ 




m 

03 

f-i 


1 

CO 

03 


CD 

o 

1 




eg 


«s 


CD 




T$ 


H3 


"3 




"Si 


J a 


P 

CD 




Ph 

rP 


Ph 

rP 

co 


CD 




c3 


03 


P 




o 


o 


P 




!>> 








pq 










„ 






© 


T-T 






eo « 


CO 






i> 








90 u 


r^ 






H ft 


3 






-^ 


H 










tH 




rH 




tH 




«* 




OS 




os 




■«* 




^H 




CO 




co 












T-T 








«g= 




<&■ 


co 








; a> 








£ 
















o 








CO 








CD 








P3 








„ 








p 








o 
















H-3 








o3 








•^ 








Ph 








O 








U 








Ph 


OJ 






Ph 








c3 


03 






tw 


A 






O 


o 






CD 
O 
P 
o3 


00 






r oi 


«M 






<r Q 


o 






' o 








H 








„ 








r— | 








w 








r* 








00 . 








H H- 3 








O 








O 









22 PRIMAEY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



Statement No. 3. 
Detailed Account of Current Expenditures. 



Beans and pease, 146 bushels, $ 380 74 

Blinds, 30 80 

Books, newspapers, postage and stationery, .... 346 56 

Brooms and brushes, . . 62 55 

Carpenter work, . 303 00 

Carriages and harnesses, 99 96 

Cement and lime, 62 78 

Coal, 4931 tons, 3,706 13 

Coffee, 2,372 pounds, and tea, 319 pounds, .... 454 32 

Concrete walk, . . 568 90 

Corn, 800 bushels, and oats, 4,351 pounds, 665 50 

Crockery, 62 43 

Dry goods and clothing, . . . . , % . . 4,341 51 

Feed and meal, 926 49 

Fertilizers, 272 28 

Fish, 16,100 pounds, . . /. 620 84 

Flour, 648 barrels, . . ' . ... . . . 5,351 25 

Furniture, 154 50 

Gasoline, 30 barrels, . . . 406 11 

Groceries, 582 05 

Hardware, . . . • 569 35 

Improvements, . 1,170 61 

Labor, 1,344 25 

Lightning-rods, 77 40 

Live stock, 351 84 

Lumber, 791 78 

Mason work, . . . . . , 327 75 

Meats, 39,517 pounds, . . . 2,479 91 

Medicines, . . . • . . 57 70 

Miscellaneous, . 617 16 

Molasses, 1,743 gallons, and sugar, 3,921 pounds, . . . 1,351 56 

Oil, 184 gallons, 85 35 

Paint-stock and painting, . . 905 67 

Repairs, . . . 757 12 

Bice, 1,695 pounds, 142 48 

Salaries, 12,813 30 

Salaries of Inspectors, 295 34 

Seeds, 77 53 



1873.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25, 

Statement No. 3. — Concluded. 



23 



Shoes, leather and repairs, . . $1,511 52 

Soap and stock, . . . 180 45 

Smith-work and stock, 221 46 

Straw, 19 tons, . . . . 270 95 

Tailoring, . . . 273 00 

Taking inventory, . . . 100 00 

Tank, . . . . . . 143 75 

Tools, agricultural and mechanical, 90 66 

Transportation of freight and passengers, . . . . 641 49 



$47,048 08 



Statement No. 4. 
Products of the Farm. 



1381 


tons English hay. 


2 bushels shelled beans. 


34 


" rowen. 


6 " beans in pods. 


6* 


" millet. 


9J " pease in pods. 


4 


" rye-straw. 


\ " currants. 


2 


" corn-fodder. 


\\ " quinces. 


55 


" green-fodder. 


2-| " pears. 


86 bushels sweet-corn ears. 


25 " apples. 


i* 


tons winter squashes. 


3 barrels apples. 


570 pounds summer squashes. 


18 bushels cucumbers. 


419 


" water-melons. 


9 " tomatoes. 


87 


" musk-melons. 


2,018 " potatoes. 


84 


" pie-plant. 


75 " rye. 


575 


" veal. 


500 heads of cabbage. 


5,333 


" beef. 


92 tons milk. 


9,274 


" pork. 


41 cords wood. 


75 bushels parsnips. 


6,000 feet lumber. 


160 


" beets. 


54 pigs. 


1,150 


" mangolds. 


25 calves. 


600 


" ruta-bagas. 


2 lambs. 


1,166 


" carrots. 


79 pounds calfskin. 


500 


" English turnips. 


20£ " wool. 


60 


" onions. 





24 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



$s> 



5* 

8 oo 



<a 



53s 



8 



&0 






•l^ox 


CO CM CO CO r-< tJi CM 




U9qta8jd3g 


HH(MHHt}( 1 HCO 1 1 1 1 1 HH | ri(M I H | 


•;sn£ny 


1 IHHHN |(MOi IHtH 1 | | | | | |HH |' 


•4nf 


HHHN N I IOI 1 »0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CM 1 

T— 1 


•8Utlf 


1 r-iOq | (Mr-i 1 I iH | '|' | | | ''| .| L | | | TT 1 


'AvW 


iH | rH | rH(N | |r-l| | |H | ! | | |^|0| 


•ipdy 


1 HCO 1 ^ I I I ! I I I ICO |H | | | IxHI 


•ip.rej\[ 


1 1 H | ■* CM | 1 ^H | 1 Nt> 1 1 i— < 1 I I CO <CO 


•Xretuqaji 


1 | lO 1 H^CN | CM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CN |H | iQifJ 


: •^TBtlUtff 


I Ht> | CNH I I CO 1 1 1 | H | | CO 1 I 1 COO 


•jaqraoDDa 


lOlH |HHH |H | I |H | |H | | | |CMi 


•j9qraoAOjs[ 


1 |^ liNH | I.I 1 1 1 |H | | | | | |^| 


•jaqopo 


1 HCM 1 COCO 1 1 1 i — i I 1 |t-ItH| 1 ICMItHI 


CO 

S 
M 

ft 
-4 

05 

» 02 
<1 

02 

ft 






' 




Abscess, . 

Boils, . 

Burns and bruises, . 

Canker, 

Catarrh, . 

Conjunctivitis, . 

Croup, . . 

Debility, . * . 

Diarrhoea, . 

Disease of spine, 

Dropsy, . 

Dysentery, 

Erysipelas, 

Fever, simple, . 

Fever, typhoid, 

Fractures and dislocation 

Frostbite, . 

Gangrene of the lungs, 

Gastritis, . 

Gravel, 

Headache, 

Influenza, . 



1873.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25, 



25 



(N^IMHlMJOCOafMHiO 


CM 


>o 


T-i «DWrt 


o 


CM 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 H>C*H 


T* 


o 




CO 


CM 


1 CM I 1 > I 1 1 (MH^ 


t> 


as 




CO 


CM 


1 O 1 1 1 1 1 IMOH 


tH 


^H 




^ 


CM 


1 CM 1 | HWH | ON(^ 


OS 


CM 




<M 


CM 


1 CM 1 1 1 1 1 CM ^H CO CO 


00 


-* 




<M 


CM 


CM l-H 1 1 1 1 HH^TjfH 


O 


Oi 




CO 


CM 


1 II 1 1 1 HIMCNHH 


CO 


Oi 




*o 


CM 


1 CM I | I | I | tH rfl | 


I>- 


lO 




co 


CM 


1 IH | | | |ri>0 1 I 


CO 


CO 




CO 


CM 


111 — l||)I| OiCO 1 


^H 


CM 




CM 


CM 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 H^HCM 


O 


O 




CM 


CM 


1 1 1 HH | I HC5CO | 


CO 


O 




CO 


CM 


aT 




- 


pQ • ' 






& 












1— 1 






" T3 m 






S'O 






o3 a 




„ 


S g : 






- * k « 




F 8 




f-t 


Mumps, . 

Nausea, . 
Parturition, 
Phthisis, . 
Pneumonia, 
Poison, 
Scrofula, . . 
Skin disease 
Sore heads, 
Sprains and 
Other diseas 


'oi 

-1-3 

o 

EH 








1 



26 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



REPORT OF THE CHAPLAIN AND PRINCIPAL. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School, 

Gentlemen : — Within the limits usually allowed to an 
annual report, it is to be expected that only what is new or 
peculiar will claim attention. These features are not suffi- 
ciently numerous in the present instance, to occupy any con- 
siderable space. The changes in the school have been in the 
same direction as those of previous years. The institution is 
gradually becoming more distinctively reformatory, not to 
say penal, in its character, requiring on the part of its officers 
increased vigilance in the work of correction and restraint. 
Many of the scholars are criminals, though of tender age. 
The leniency of the law, resting upon the hope of their im- 
provement operates to save them, if possible, from the fate of 
the vicious. It allows them to enter the State Primary School, 
instead of forcing them into a position where they must as- 
sociate with those who are older and more .hardened in crime. 
Yet they are offenders, and their commitment to our care 
must be regarded in a certain sense as a punishment. 
Restraint and discipline are to the most of them at first both 
new and irksome, and they must be closely watched to prevent 
their escape, and to accustom them to the necessary regulations 
for the preservation of order. With constant accessions of 
this character, mixing with and fermenting the other elements, 
the school may be said to wear at all times something of the 
prison aspect, and may properly be termed penal so far as 
this necessary constraint is a result of past offences. We 
would be glad to drop this characteristic, and let the word 
primary suggest our work as one of simple education, at least 
for the sake of the children to whom the almshouse furnished 
a home, and who, when that was abolished, having thus ceased 



1873.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 27 

to be paupers, graduated into a reformatory. We do not mean 
to insinuate that the boys of the visiting agency, as a whole, 
are any harder to manage than those who have come to us from 
other sources. We have spoken of the peculiar construction 
of the school in this Eeport, simply in order to indicate the 
embarrassment which often arises in the treatment of these 
mixed elements. The differences in age, whilst they are con- 
gregated in one large family, also adds to the difficulty. It 
is not easy to secure the best method of government in indi- 
vidual cases, where rules must be made applicable to hundreds 
of boys and girls between the ages of three and sixteen, and 
and of every grade of intellectual and moral attainment. 

The grand object of the school is to furnish each pupil, 
according to his capacity, with a proper outfit in body, mind 
and heart, not only for obtaining a living, but for accomplish- 
ing the true mission of life, in aiding others and serving God. 
There is much both to be learned and unlearned in the course 
of this training. Old habits are to be broken off, and new 
ones ingrafted. Lessons received in unsuitable homes, in 
vulgar society, and in the streets, are to be forgotten, while 
we endeavor to occupy the mind with pure and elevated 
thoughts. The reading of instructive books, social evening 
entertainments, music, and the cultivation of flowers, are 
some of the means which are adapted to produce this result, 
and which we have found most effectual. We aim to impress 
upon each new pupil the idea, that at his entrance into the 
institution he is in the best position for advancement. The 
past is forgotten. He can begin at once to amend, and 
demonstrate that he is worthy to be trusted. High rank in 
scholarship, though encouraged and commended in the school- 
room, is not held in such good repute among us, as moral 
excellence. If a child has a strong bias towards evil, whether 
inherited or otherwise, whenever he gathers enough energy 
and determination to change his course and prove himself 
worthy of confidence, he deserves and receives special privilege 
where it can be granted. This principle we find to be the 
fairest as well as the most salutary in the discipline of a 
school whose object is mainly reformatory. There are at the 
present time in school, the names of 26 scholars upon the roll 
of honor, signifying perfect deportment for several months. 



28 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Besides these, nearly a hundred are in the Band, pledged to 
order, honesty, temperance &c, and candidates for the higher 
position. Some of the instances of improvement in character 
and conduct have been quite marked. During the past year, 
the effect of a religious awakening has been felt among the 
older children, and several appear to have sought and obtained 
the Divine assistance in an earnest endeavor to exemplify 
the Christian life. 

Among the new things of the year, may be mentioned the 
experiment of introducing among the children a branch of 
manual labor, which promises to be both remunerative to the 
State and advantageous to the school. Since February last, 
96 boys have at different times been employed in seating chairs. 
The shop is arranged to accommodate 60 workers at once, and 
this number has been kept good during the past seven 
months, by putting on new hands in the place of those who 
leave the institution. They work four hours a day, with per- 
mission to occupy the remaining spare time out of school hours 
in the same manner if they choose. Many avail themselves 
of this privilege, saying they would rather work than stay in 
the play-yard. . As they are allowed a per cent, of what they 
earn, they are anxious to accomplish as much as possible. 
This money is placed to their account, and they can spend it 
as they choose, or let it remain until they go away. Probably 
the extra amount of labor accomplished under this stimulus 
is enough to balance the compensation given to the boys, and 
no one is the loser by the transaction. At the same time, 
their work is peformed with a more cheerful spirit than if 
they were compelled to execute an allotted task. 

The chief advantage which this employment has in the 
discipline of the school, is the occupation which it gives to 
those spirits who would be otherwise restless and unruly. In 
learning how to make themselves useful, they forget their 
home-sickness, and have little opportunity to plan mischief. 
New boys drop their previous habits, and become assimilated 
to the rest much more readily by being placed at once in the 
chair-shop. In a few weeks, becoming able to work with 
some facility, and to earn a little spending money, they are 
for the most part contented and well disposed. The habits 



1873.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



29 



of industry thus acquired must also prove a permanent benefit 
to the children. 

Boys who are not old enough to work in the shop are em- 
ployed in light labor upon the farm. The girls, in addition 
to the ordinary domestic duties of the establishment, which 
they perform regularly, spend a part of each day in the 
sewing room. 

Five hours a day are passed by the younger pupils in the 
school-room. Those who work, are required to study but 
three hours. The classes are arranged with special reference 
to these half-time scholars. There are six schools. Nos. 1, 
2 and 5, have each two divisions, making distinct classes for 
morning and afternoon recitations, so that they may almost 
be said each to comprise two schools under one teacher. 

The whole number of scholars upon the school registers 
September 30, 1873, is as follows : — 



No. of 
School. 


TEACHER. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


Mary E. Witt, 2 divisions, . ....". 
Clara Gowing, 2 divisions, .... 

Harriet E. Darte, 

. Ada 0. Copeland, 

Myra A. Smith, 2 divisions, .... 
Ida R. Willey, . ... 
Lucy E. R. Hill, Music and Writing, . 


72 
87 
56 
50 

23 


22 

58 
32 


94 

87 
56 
50 
58 
55 




288 


112 


400 


• 
Average attendance during the year, . 
Average age of pupils, 


350. 

Nearly 10 years. 




CHAELES F. F( 

Chaplain 


)STE 

and 1 


^rincij 


ial. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 25. 



Twenty-first Annual Report 



THE I^SPECTOES 



STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL 



M O N" S O N" 



'v?-^^**^ 



October, 1874. 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS, 
79 Milk Street (corner of Federal). 

1875. 



€oinmtoiiwcaltf) of Jttassacljuaeits. 



INSPECTORS' REPORT. 



In accordance with the law establishing state almshouses, 
the Inspectors of the State Primary School present their 
Twenty-First Annual Keport, or second of the full years of 
the State Primary School. 

There has little transpired during the year out of the 
ordinary routine. The Superintendent, ever watchful, having 
an eye on all that pertains to the successful management of 
the institution, has kept the wheels so lubricated that the 
year has been satisfactory to the Inspectors. If it were 
in his power always to call to his aid assistants competent 
to fill the places they occupy, the institution would be com- 
paratively easy to run ; but there are frequent changes which 
add greatly to the anxiety and labor of the Superintendent 
and his efficient wife. We are happy to bear testimony to 
the faithful service of those officers, who have for years been 
connected with the institution, and it is hoped that they may 
be able and disposed to remain for years to come. 

The year has not been one of such marked change, in the 
way of new buildings, repairs and alterations, as some in the 
past. The new fence commenced last year has been completed 
around the girls' yard, as well as that of the boys, and a 
change has been made by moving the fence in rear of the 
hospital, giving more and much needed room for a clothes- 
yard, and greatly adding to the beauty of the grounds. 
Two new hydrants have been put in at different points in 
the rear of the main buildings, giving greater facility for 
applying water in case of fire. 

The Superintendent, in his accompanying report, will give* 



4 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

a more detailed account of what has been done in the way of 
ordinary repairs. 

So large and so many wooden buildings require constant 
vigilance to keep them up, and in our experience we find Dr. 
Wakefield is ever on the alert that nothing shall suffer from 
his neglect. 

The farm has had a delightfully green aspect all the year, 
and the yield of hay has been larger than usual ; but, owing 
to the wet and cold season, it is not expected that the other 
field-crops will be as good as in previous years. The stock 
on the farm is creditable to the Commonwealth. The yield 
of milk is abundant for the family. 

The introducing of a new branch of labor for the boys, 
other than on the farm, has proved successful. More than 
one hundred boys have been employed in seating chairs for 
the last year, and if the pecuniary result is not great to the 
State, the habits of industrv acquired are invaluable to the 
boys. 

Another branch of labor has been added; viz., that of 
printing, which promises to be of value. For this Hon. Gr. 
M. Fisk is entitled to the thanks of this Board for his con- 
tribution of time and material, valued at fifty dollars, to start 
this important work 

There has been a great change in the amount of the prod- 
ucts of the farm during the six years that Dr. Wakefield has 
had charge of it. The hay cut is double what it was when he 
came here, and the live stock has increased in about the same 
proportion, giving value to the farm, as everything produced 
finds a home market and returns to the soil. The Common- 
wealth may look with pride on this farm when compared, 
with what it was twenty years ago. It may not be profitable, 
ordinarily, for the State to run farms, but in this case it cer- 
tainly presents a beautiful aspect. 

The report of the Superintendent gives the number of 
children as larger than at any previous date. Our seven 
schools are all filled. This inconvenience is obviated in sum- 
mer by the boys spending a part of their time on the farm 
and in other employments, alternating school and work. In 
this way the attendance at any given time has not been 
greater than could be seated in the school-rooms now in use ; 



1874.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 5 

but it is obvious to the Board of Inspectors that another room 
will be required, jyid one more teacher, to meet the growing 
demands of the institution. You will learn from the report 
of the Principal of the Schools that the standing of scholar- 
ship is not high, from the fact that there are so frequent 
changes ; but we see creditable improvement in some who 
continue from year to year. 

To what has been said in previous reports concerning the 
policy of paying families for the support of young children, 
which in many cases could be done at less than our average 
expense, we again call your attention as a subject of vital 
importance ; and, as we can add nothing to the force of those 
suggestions, we would refer your Honor to that point in the 
report of 1873. 

Although the number of deaths during the year has been 
greater than in the two previous years, the general health of 
the institution has been good. The number in the hospital 
has not been large. No epidemic has prevailed, with one or 
two slight exceptions, and several of the cases of disease were 
of children with chronic complaints or of defective organism. 
The Superintendent and Physician will, in his report, give 
you an account of this department more in detail. 

The Act passed in 1873, whereby truant children may, 
under certain circumstances, be sent to the State Primary 
School, has furnished us with but one boarder as yet; but if 
this one is to be a fair sample of this class of pupils we shall 
hope that few truants will be found in this Commonwealth. 

Officers and their Salaries. 
Horace P. Wakefield, Superintendent, 
Chas. F. Foster, AssH- Superintendent, Chaplain 

and Principal, ..... 
John N. Lacey, Engineer, 
D. C. McCrimmon, Baker, 
Geo. H. Fisher dick, Farmer, . 
Geo. H. Stone, Assistant-Farmer, . 
Uriah Manning, Assistant, 
Sumner A. Andrews, Supervisor, 
Frank P. Keeler, Watchman, . 
Abraham S. Barnard, Cook, 



$1,800 


00 


1,400 


00 


1,200 


00 


626 


00 


600 


00 


360 


00 


360 


00 


360 


00 


360 


00 


420 


00 



PBIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Geo. W. Keyes, Teamster, 
James Skevington, Assistant- Engineer ^ 
J. M. Sisk, Driver, 
Climena Wakefield, Clerk, 
Mary B. Wakefield, Matron, . 
Jane A. Keeler, Assistant-Matron, 
Mary Andrews, Laundress, 
Charlotte A. St. Johns, Cook, 
Asenath Hadley, Nurse, . 
Anna J. Patten, Seamstress, 
Catherine McConnell, Seamstress, 
M. Lena Goodell, Teacher, 
Rosamond A. Hill, Teacher, 
Harriette E. Darte, Teacher, . 
E. M. Fullingtou, Teacher, 
Alice W. Emerson, Teacher, . 
Mary E. Trask, Teacher, 



Inspectors 



Eleazar Porter, 
Lewis N. Gilbert, 
E. Y. B. Holcomb, 



. 


$360 00 


ier 9 


360 00 


• 


360 00 




500 00 




300 00 




300 00 




250 00 




250 00 




250 00 




240 00 




250 00 




250 00 




250 00 




250 00 




250 00 




250 00 




250 00 




160 00 


* • 


160 00 


. t 


160 00 



Inventory of 1874. 

[Taken by D. B. Bishop, of Palmer.] 
Live stock, ..... 
Products of farm, .... 
Machinery and mechanical tools, 
Carriages and agricultural tools, 
Beds and bedding (inmates' department) , 
Other property (inmates' department), 
Personal property (Superintendent's dep't), 
Beady-made clothing, boots and shoes, 
Dry goods, 

Groceries and provisions, 
Drugs and medicines, 
Fuel, .... 
Library and school-books 



$7,427 00 

8,374 55 

12,847 25 

2,782 95 

5,737 46 

5,012 56 

7,018 52 

6,619 10 

1,760 99 

2,288 47 

423 01 

4,794 85 

431 27 



Total Personal Property (carried forward) , $65,517 98 



1874.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 7 

Amount brought forward, . . . $65,517 98 

Buildings, .... $102,760 00 

Lands, . ... . . 18,758 69 

Total Real Estate, . . 121,518 69 



Total Real and Personal Estate, . .$187,036 67 

In years past we have asked for money for the purchase of 
more land, and the request has been granted. For the ordi- 
nary purposes of the school we have land enough, but the 
beauty of our model state farm is greatly marred by the 
unsightly entrance through which we and all who visit the 
premises have to pass. Upon this is a rocky ravine, dilapi- 
dated saw-mill, a one-story tenement and land, intersected by 
roads, affording building lots for undesirable tenants. If this 
were added to the farm it would give the Commonwealth a 
straight line on the north, the control of these nuisances and 
in our opinion be of great benefit to the Commonwealth. 

You will find in the report of the Superintendent, which is 
submitted with our own, full particulars of what has been 
done by him on the farm, in and around the buildings, as well 
as the financial statement of money expended for the carrying 
on of this important state institution. His report of the 
Physician's department is worthy of note, as the year has 
been one of comparative health. 

The report of Mr. Foster, the Chaplain and Principal, is 
one of interest, and his untiring efforts to promote the moral 
and mental improvement of those under his charge have been 
noted and commended by us ; and we hope, yea, desire, that 
he will fill those important offices for many years, and we 
doubt not that his influence with the children will be felt by 
many for years, as they grow up to fill stations of influence, 
and that not a few will become stars in glory through his 
prayers and Christian effort for their spiritual good. 

ELEAZAR PORTER, 
LEWIS N. GILBERT, 
E. Y. B. HOLCOMB, 

Inspectors. 

State Primary School, Monson, October 1, 1874. 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT AND PHYSICIAN. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School at Monson. 

Gentlemen : — In accordance with the rules and regulations 
of this institution, I submit my Annual Report for your con- 
sideration. 

Receipts. 
Cash received from the unexpended appropria- 
tion of 1873, . . . . . . $15,674 57 

Cash received from annual appropriation of 1874, 29,926 98 
Cash received from special appropriation for 

alterations and repairs, . . . . . 99 00 



Receipts from all appropriations, . . $45,700 55 

Receipts from all other sources, . . . 1,508 72 



Total receipts, . .... $47,209 27 

Expenditures. 

Salaries, . . . $12,399 95 

Provisions, . . . . . . . 13,978 91 

Other expenses, 19,222 69 



Total current expenditures, . . . $45,601 55 

Cash paid from special appropriation for altera- 
tions and repairs, . . . . . 99 00 



Total expenditures, $45,700 55 

Cash paid into state treasury, .... 1,508 72 



Total cash payments, .... $47,209 27 



1874.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



The number of persons in the institution, Octo- 
ber 1, 1873, was, 

In State Primary School proper, 
Por support and temporary custody, . 

Total admissions during the year ending Octo- 
ber 1, 1874, ... 

Transferred from Tewksbury, 

Men, .5 

Women, . . . . . .16 

Boys, 109 

Girls, 46 

Sent by court, . 

Boys, 53 

Girls, 8 

Returned from places, 

Boys, .... . . 37 

Girls, 8 

Births, 
Boy, . 
Girl, . 

Returned after elopement, 

Truant, . 



Total number of persons in the institution during 

the year ending October 1, 1874, . 
Total discharges during the year ending October 
1, 1874, 

Placed on trial, 
Boys, . 
Girls, . 
Discharged by Board 
Men, . 
Women, 
Boys, . 
Girls, . 
Deserted, 
Boys, . 
Died, 
Males, . 
Females, 
2 



453 



400 
53 



176 



286 



61 



45 



of State Charities, 



739 
246 



98 

27 

2 
12 
35 
25 

11 

15 
3 



125 



74 



11 

18 



10 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Transferred to Tewksbury, 
Transferred to Westborough, ... 
Transferred to Northampton, 

Total number of persons remaining in the insti- 
tution, October 1, 1874, .... 

In State Primary School proper, 

Boys, .... . . 312 

Girls, Ill 

For support, ...... 

Men, . . . . . . .5 

Women, . . ■ . . . .34 

Boys, . . . . . . .15 

Girls, 11 

For temporary custody, 

Boys, . . . . . • > .4 
Girls, 1 

Average number supported in the institution for 

the year ending October 1, 1874, . 
Average cost per week for each person, 
Average number in the Primary School, . 

Deducting $1,508.72 (the amount paid into the 
state treasury) from the current expenditures, 
$45,601.55, it will leave the cost per week for 
each inmate of the institution, 

Cost per year for each inmate of the institution, 



12 
5 

1 



423 



65 



493 



481 

$1 82 
407 



$1 76 
91 87 



Since the last report was submitted another room has been 
fitted up in the building moved, and designed for the business 
of chair-seating. This shop will accommodate about fifty 
boys ; there being now employed about one hundred and 
twenty boys in this occupation. The boys here employed 
attend school one-half of the day and work the other half. 
They commenced work in the new shop some time in Febru- 
ary. The number of chairs seated during the year is 19,450, 
besides what has been done in the way of repairs. 

For this work, during this time, there has been received 
and paid over to the state treasury the sum of $1,109.36, 



1874.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 11 

while the boys have added to their fund, as their share of the 
profits, $298.62. 

The same encouragement, with the same happy results, is 
held out to the boys as reported last year, with this excep- 
tion, — that a small per cent., from the earnings on certain 
chairs and from repairs, is set aside as a common fund, to be 
divided among the well-behaved boys who are employed in 
other departments, and have not the same opportunity to ob- 
tain funds that those have who are employed in the chair-shop. 

In my report of 1869, I stated that I had constructed a 
refrigerator, and protected it by the caveat, "Patent applied 
.for." No patent has ever been received, and no infringement 
has ever been attempted, to my knowledge. The only trou- 
ble arising therefrom has been its want of capacity, and its 
inability to overcome the power of gravitation and discharge 
its surplus water at a point higher than its level. Having 
become satisfied that these defects were vital, and never could 
be remedied under a patent, even if obtained, I have con- 
structed a new one, varying the principles sufficiently to meet 
these emergencies. 

It is constructed — sixteen feet by eight — in the cellar of the 
main building, with an opening for the reception of the raw 
material from the street, a drain through the embankment to 
carry off the refuse, after it has been raised to the tempera- 
ture of 32° Fahrenheit, and an entrance in close proximity to 
the milk-room, buttery, and kitchen. In it can be stored a 
cord of ice, leaving us ample room for the storage of all per- 
ishable articles needed in such a family as ours, even while 
Sirius is the presiding genius among the heavenly bodies. 

On washing and bathing-days we had need of larger reser- 
voirs for the storage of water on our premises. A new tank, 
holding about seven hundred gallons, made of old boiler shell, 
has been placed in the boiler-room, at a cost of about $90, 
and we are now filtering the water that supplies our boilers. 

This water is taken from a brook, which, at times, after a 
smart rain, is turbid, and contains a deposit. The water does 
not act on the iron, or on the lead in which it is conveyed, 
either by erosion nor by deposit, but contains a sediment, 
which is deposited in the boilers. We have been making 
efforts to obtain the best results from the consumption of our 



12 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. . [Oct. 

coal, and think that this will be one help to arrive at more 
economical results. 

The consumption of coal, for heating this establishment 
with steam, for the current year, is four hundred and six tons. 

This apparatus is in good working order, and also that for 
the manufacture of gas. 

The amount of gasoline consumed is fifty barrels, costing 
$469.79. The pipe conveying steam to the hospital is laid 
underground more than one hundred feet, and the tanks con- 
veying our supply of gasoline are also laid in the ground. 
During the winter the earth became saturated with water, so 
that it found its wav into the gasoline tank, and also into the 
box containing our steam-pipes. This, for a time, seriously 
interfered with our heat and light. To avoid this in future, 
I have laid a drain from the gasoline tank, and also one lower 
than the steam-pipes and on the upper side of them, for the 
purpose of carrying off the water, should the ground be again 
so saturated. 

During the year we have purchased a printing-press and 
fitted up an office, at a cost of about $175. Hon. G. M. Fisk, 
a former member of your board, and who is entitled to the 
credit of originating the scheme, has furnished the office with 
type and fixtures to the amount of about $50. 

From this office has been issued two numbers of the " Dew- 
Drop, " and it is proposed to continue its publication bi- 
monthly. 

We have printed our own bill-heads, cards, indentures, 
schedules, envelopes, etc., etc. 

The work, under the direction of the Principal, is done by 
the boys, who will make laudable efforts to win, merit and 
retain the confidence of all who may patronize the office of 
the "Dew-Drop." 

During the winter, the increase of scholars was such that 
we found it necessary to provide another school-room. 

Accordingly, another was fitted up in the room formerly 
occupied as a drying-room, adjacent to the laundry. New 
desks and chairs were purchased of W. O. Haskell & Son, 
at an expense of $175. 

The addition of this room, with another chair-shop for fifty 
boys, and the alternation from school to workshop, affords 



1874.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 13 

us comfortable accommodations for our increased numbers. 
The principle of employing our boys for watching has, in the 
main, worked well. Although some have proved treacherous, 
many plots laid by the boys to escape have been discovered 
by the watchers and defeated. 

For this service they have received nearly $100 ; although, 
if caught napping, they forfeit their pay for that watch. 

One watch is from 9 p. m. to 1 a. m. ; the other from 1 
a. m. to 5 A. M. 

To keep the boys' play-house, yard and fence in tolerable 
condition requires care, vigilance and labor. 

The floor timbers were never sufficiently supported. I 
have excavated under a part of the building, making a cellar 
for the storage of coal, placed additional supports under the 
timbers, and over the old floor I have laid a floor of two-inch 
chestnut plank. To refloor our boys play-house with any- 
thing less substantial, would be only and literally boys' play. 

Last year the fence around most of this yard was renewed ; 
but during a heavy rain, with a great thaw and strong wind, 
the water from the mountain in our rear undermined and top- 
pled over a large portion of it. This has been replaced, and 
our best efforts made to avoid another like catastrophe. 

A picket-fence has been erected around our new cemetery, 
and a light fence with a single rail has been placed around 
the court and rear yard, besides the walks, to keep the chil- 
dren from the grass-plots. 

In the rear of the hospital the fence has been moved, in- 
closing a much larger space, making a decided improvement 
in the appearance of the grounds, as well as furnishing us a 
larger and more commodious clothes-yard, which has hgd an 
entire new outfit of fixtures. In the spring I built a piece of 
wall and moved a portion of old fence that needed resetting, 
so dividing our main pasture that both portions of it are 
accessible to running water. 

The fences around the establishment have been reset and 
repaired, so that they are in better condition than they have 
ever been for the last seven years. 

The legislature of 1874 made a special appropriation of 
$1,000 to make improvements at the State Primary School at 
Monson, authorized under a Resolve, chap. 21- of 1872, and for 



14 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

which they foiled to make a sufficiently large appropriation at 
the time. 

From this appropriation I have paid Pettee & Perkins, of 
Holyoke, the sum of $99, for two hydrants and fixtures, and 
have also contracted with Goodhue & Birnie for about five 
hundred feet of three-inch cement-pipe, laid and completed 
for forty-eight cents per foot. 

This cost will amount to about $375, besides the excavation 
and refilling, which have been done by our help on the prem- 
ises. One hydrant is located in the region of our barns, and 
the other near the hospital, and, in case of fire, will afford us 
increased protection. 

My aim, for the last four years, has been to produce, by 
purchase and breeding, a herd of thoroughbred Ayrshire 
cows. The herd now consists of ten Ayrshires, nineteen 
Grade Ayrshire, and the balance natives, some of them being 
mixed with Durham and Jersey blood. 

I have not bred for size or beauty alone, but the main 
object has been to increase the milking power of the animal. 

The herd, when I took charge, was a mixture of all bloods, 
with nothing pure. 

There were some sleek, fat, handsome animals, whose milk- 
ing power would do honor to a first-class goat, but were too 
beautiful for this locality, and poorly adapted to the purpose 
for which a cow should be kept; viz., her milking ability. 
This kind I have weeded out as fast as I could so do, sacrific- 
ing looks for profit, and beauty for utility, when both could 
not be combined. 

The looks of the herd has not been improved, but its milk- 
ing capacity, the sole object for which all, save fanciers, keep 
c'ows, has been by the change increased. Thirty-two of the 
herd I have kept through the year. The balance has been 
changed, — some turned for beef, while heifers have taken 
their places. 

The highest amount given by any cow is 6,892 pounds ; the 
smallest is 2,751 pounds. 

The average amount given is 4,944 pounds for each cow, 
which is equal to 2,300 quarts, at 2-fcjfc pounds per quart. 

The average amount of milk given by twelve of these cows 
is 6,096 pounds, equal to 2,835 quarts per cow. 



1874.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 15 

For a long time strong doubts have been entertained and 
freely expressed respecting the practicability of farming at 
this institution. Many queries have been raised whether the 
Commonwealth was not poorer for her cultivation of the soil, 
and also whether for any dollar invested she ever realized one 
hundred cents. 

In my report of 1872 I made estimates and stated facts, from 
which I was sure, and so stated, that the money invested in 
farming, as here carried on, was a paying investment, and 
that the margin of profits was among the thousands. 

This statement, by some, was regarded as visionary, and for 
the reason that the figures were not exhibited, it was deemed 
incredible. In 1873 I prepared and submitted to the State 
Board of Agriculture (see report 1873-74, page 267) a paper 
giving the amount of products raised on the farm last year 
for consumption by the family, and also the cost of the same, 
including interest on the investment, fertilizers and grain pur- 
chased, labor, etc., etc., thereby showing a large margin of 
profits, besides what had been done for the institution by 
the teams and men in drawing coal, flour, dry goods and groc- 
eries, and also improvements on the farm and on the prem- 
ises. This statement, although fortified with figures, was 
taken cum grano- salts. 

In presenting this report of the farm expenses, products 
and results, I propose to make one more effort to settle this 
vexed question by the presentation of those little digits whose 
character for truth and veracity stand higher than my ipse 
dixit, and which "won't lie," and cannot be bluffed down by 
the simple statement of disbelief in their results. 

The products of the farm for the current year 

amount to $14,734 91 



The hay and roots for wintering the stock and 
fattening pork, and manure for the next year's 
crops, amount to . . . . . . $7,476 10 

To wit :— 
148 tons of hay, . $3,256 00 

8 " " meadow, . . 128 00 

51 " « second crop, . 1,122 00 



16 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct, 





$95 00 




128 00 




20 00 


h 


66 00 




540 00 




450 00 




90 00 




157 50 




93 60 




30 00 




. 1,500 00 




t7 fi7fi 10 




«p 1 , U 1 U Jl-\J 


• 


200 00 



4 J tons of Hungarian grass, 
8 " oats, mowed, 
2 " corn fodder, . 
22 " " " green 

1,350 bushels mangolds, . 
1,000 " carrots, 
600 " English turnips, 
350 " ruta-bagas, . 
156 " turnip-beets, 

50 " parsnips, 
300 cords manure, . 

Deduct roots for family use, 



The milk, beef, pork, and potatoes hitherto con- 
sumed, sold, or awaiting consumption by the 
family, amount to . 
To wit :— 
1,390 bushels potatoes, ' . 
2,000 lbs. winter squash, . 

100 bushels onions, 
2,230 heads of cabbage, . 
71 bushels sweet corn ears 
36 " cucumbers, . 
50 " tomatoes, 
500 " cider apples, 
9,284 lbs. pork, 
2,700 
360 
38 
47 
48 
904 



4 

H 

1 

2 



beef, 
veal , 
lamb, 
wool, 
calf skin, 
tons milk, 
" watermelons, . 
" muskmelons, . 
1,000 feet lumber, 

50 barrels winter apples, 
15 calves , 
8 lambs, 
Hay sold, .... 



• 


. $7,258 81 


$834 00 


50 


00 


100 


00 


111 


50 


35 


50 


42 


00 


60 


00 . 


50 00 


742 


72 


243 


00 


43 


20 


9 


50 


. 21 


15 


8 


00 


4,193 


00 


30 


00 


30 


00 


26 


00 


87 


50 


16 


00 


38 00 


6 


88 



1874.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



17 



Pigs sold, . . 


$31 85 




15 cords wood, . . . 


75 


00 




Ejots, for family use, 


200 


00 




Garden sauce, .... 


129 


01 




Premiums, .... 


45 


00 




Labor done off the farm, . 






$1,412 00 


To wit :— 








Work for institution, 


. $596 00 




Teaming for institution, 


87 


00 




Hauling coal, .... 


492 


00 




Storing ice, 


95 


00 




Work on highway, . 


142 


00 




Gain in valuation of stock, 




. 


$1,395 00 


" " " tools, 




. 


45 91 


Boarding two horses, 




. 


300 00 


Improvements on farm, 




. 


811 00 


To wit :— 








Days' work by men, . 


. 


357 




" " oxen, . 




47 




" " horse, . 




H 




Total days' work, at $2, . 


• • 


405^ 


Products, ..... 






$7,258 81 


Labor off the farm, . 






1,412 00 


Gain in valuation of stock, 






1,395 00 


" " " tools, 






45 91 


Boarding two horses, 






300 00 


Improvements, .... 






811 00 


Proceeds, 


111,222 72 


Expenses 








Appraisal of land, 


. 




116,782 50 


" ' buildings, 


. 


. 


5,990 00 


" stock, . 


. 


. 


5,607 00 


" tools, . 




" 


1,214 44 


Total, . 


$29,593 94 



18 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct, 



Interest on valuation, 7 per cent., 

Grain purchased, 

Labor, ..... 

Fertilizers, 

Pasturage, 

Seeds, ..... 

Repairs and smith work, . 

Tools, . . . 

Stock purchased, 

Board of laborers, 

Total, . 

Proceeds of farm, 
Expenses, 

Profits, .... 



. $2,071 57 


. 1,415 


10 


. 2,877 


<50 


143 


33 


125 


00 


53 


02 


147 


27 


100 


99 


131 


30 


. 1,275 


00 


. $8,340 08 


.$11,222 72 


. 8,340 


08 



. $2,882 64 



Here is a balance in favor of the profits of $2,882.64:. 

The margin on the profit side last year was $1,287.87, 
besides all the work done by the teams and men for the 
institution, and $7,323.70 then invested in hay, roots and 
manure. The roots have been consumed by the cows, the 
manure has been used in the growth of the crop just har- 
vested, while twenty tons of hay were on hand when we 
began to secure the present crop, in June, and might have 
been sold in the spring for $600, did we believe it good pol- 
icy to sell hay and starve our crops. 

Allowing that the amount of $811 for improvements should 
be reckoned as labor on the farm, we then have a margin of 
$2,071.64, besides the sum of $7,476.10 in manure, roots, 
and hay, of which* last there will remain in the barns next 
spring, at the time of turning to grass, more than fifty tons, 
unless I should purchase more stock for its consumption, and 
which, at the present valuation, is worth $1,100, 'making 
$3,171.64. When I took charge of the institution, I found 
the farm producing 13,000 gallons of milk, while the amount 
produced this year is 21,000 gallons. The hay crop of 1868 
was 114 tons, while the amount this year, including Hunga- 
rian grass and mowed oats, is 219 J tons. The root-crop of 



1874.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 19 

1868 was 1,314 bushels, while that of 1874 is over 3,500 
bushels. The valuation of the land remains the same as in 
1868, except that it has been raised $4,250 for additional 
land purchased. Of this sum, the State appropriated $4,000 
from money I had saved from annual appropriations for cur- 
rent expenses of the institution, while I paid from my own 
pocket the balance of the increase ($250) , and for which I 
have never received the first penny. 

In 1868, I found a stock consisting of three horses and 
forty-one cattle. Now we have seven horses, seventy-six 
cattle, and sixteen sheep. 

From this increase, during six years, in the products of 
milk, hay and roots, and the ability to keep double the stock, 
with only the above mentioned addition, which the legisla- 
ture allowed me to purchase from the money saved by econ- 
omy, it must be evident that the profits from year to year 
have not come from skinning the farm, nor from impoverish- 
ing the land ; but from the fact that it has been well tilled, 
and has generously answered at sight every deposit made in 
her soil, either in manure, labor, or improvements. 

In the summer months, at a time when I should not have 
expected it, we were visited with an epidemic of conjunctiv- 
itis, of a mild type, and which subsided in a few weeks. 

In the month of November, we had an epidemic among a 
class of children under four years of age, that strongly re- 
sembled meningitis. Five died within a week, while one of 
the earliest cases lingered till January 19th, and then termi- 
nated in convulsions. All were seized suddenly. One was 
in school, to appearance well, and died before the next morn- 
ing. All were in the same ward, fed, treated, cared for, and 
exposed to the same surroundings as those who remained 
well, and yet it seemed that some occult cause had stricken 
down their vital power at a single blow. How the poison 
entered the system, through what avenue, — the stomach, the 
lungs, the skin, — I can form no satisfactory conjecture ; and 
yet I feel confident that these cases originated from a similar 
and a definite cause. 

There has been a larger number in the hospital, and a 
larger number of deaths than during the two previous years ; 
and yet, the amount of sickness has not been increased. The 



20 PRIMAEY SCHOOL AT ^ONSON. [Oct. 

whole number admitted to the hospital is 541. The monthly 
average is 32. Some of the more numerous eases were: 
debility, 8 ; burns and bruises, 17 ; fever, 22 ; sprains and 
wounds, 35 ; diarrhoea, 46 ; sore heads, ears, etc., 51 ; influ- 
enza, catarrh, etc., 62 ; disease of eyes, 99 ; bilious headache, 
nausea, etc., 117. 

The number of deaths is 18: males, 15; females, 3; of 
the following diseases : dropsy, 1 ; croup, 1 ; phthisis, 1 ; 
pneumonia, 1 ; disease of spine, 1 ; disease of heart, 1 ; 
cholera infantum, 1 ; cholera morbus, 1 ; typhoid fever, 1 ; 
scrofula, 2; convulsions, 2; and meningitis, 5. One died 
suddenly of disease of the heart ; another was at work out 
doors, ate largely of green rhubarb, and died in less than 
twenty-four hours ; while others have been suffering from 
chronic hereditary disease, failing for years, and waiting for 
months to be conveyed across the river. 

A piece of land containing from fifteen to twenty acres, in 
the shape of a triangle, projecting into our farm more than 
sixty rods, and within about twelve rods of our front yard, 
is now in the market, and can be bought for a reasonable 
price. The State owns all around it, except on the north 
side, to the east and west of it on a range line ; and this 
purchase would make our north line straight, and more than 
two hundred rods in length. The roads so intersect it that 
it must be passed by all having communication with the in- 
stitution. On it at the present time is a tumbled down 
saw-mill and dilapidated shanty, with such surroundings as 
usually accompany such fixtures. Most people suppose, from 
their proximity, right in our face and eyes, that they belong 
to the State, and wonder why these nuisances are not abated, 
and this land not beautified and improved like the rest of the 
farm. 

Applications are now made for the purchase of parcels of 
this land, for the purpose of increasing these nuisances and 
enlarging a settlement, by whose increase the products of 
the neighboring graperies and orchards, melon patches and 
henneries, will diminish in a geometrical ratio. 

This land, considering its location, is worth the money 
asked, while the nuisances, existing and in prospect, cannot 
be reckoned in dollars and cents. Whether the Common- 



1874.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 21 

wealth, which has here an investment of nearly two hundred 
thousand dollars, can afford to let this opportunity slip, I 
submit for your consideration. 

Gentlemen, the year closes with the institution in a flour- 
ishing condition. In the management of the farm, I have 
made it a specialty to increase the crop of grass and the 
product of milk, so far as could be done economically, re- 
garding these as the staples to be produced. > In the manage- 
ment of the children, I have adopted this principle : leniency, 
tempered with firmness; kindness, mingled with decision; 
having in view their future welfare, as well as their present 
comfort. In my expenditures, I have provided : first for 
the necessities, second for the comfort, and third for the con- 
venience, both of employes and inmates, and in the future I 
hope to do more to beautify, embellish, and make more 
attractive the home, by cultivating the smaller delicacies, like 
strawberries, grapes, asparagus, etc., at the same time not 
neglecting the more substantial staples. 

This is a world of change. During the year, more changes 
have taken place among the officers than in any year during 
my administration. I also have had strong premonitions that 
my turn may come in the not distant future. 
' Although a kind of centurion, having servants under me, 
I must say to one, "go, and he goeth, and to another, come, 
and he cometh ; " yet I am sure that I have borne my part of 
the burdens and responsibilities, and carried my share of the 
sorrows and perplexities of the institution ; but I would 
remember gratefully the efforts of all officers, teachers, in- 
mates and children, to make our home pleasant, and the 
endeavor of teachers and employes to do what they could to 
promote the great interests committed to our charge. 

HORACE P. WAKEFIELD, 

Superintendent and Physician. 



State Primary School, Monson, Oct. 1, 1874. 



99 



PEIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Detailed Account of Current Expenditures. 



Beans and pease, 244 bushels, . 




$481 86 


Books, newspapers, postage and stationery, 


283 44 


Brooms and brushes, .... 


131 30 


Carriages and harnesses, . 


. , 




102 49 


Cement and lime, . 


. 




33 15 


Cheese, 459 lbs., 


. 




68 86 


Coal, 328-|-£f# tons, 


. 




2,496 70 


Coffee, 3,693 lbs., and tea, 417 lbs., 




633 04 


Corn, 1,357 bushels, and oats, 3,800 lbs., 




1,235 76 


Crockery, ..... 




159 16 


Dry goods and clothing, . 






5,117 00 


Feed, 11,895 lbs., and meal, 4, 


051 lbs., 




254 34 


Fertilizers, 






310 56 


Fish, 18,925 lbs., . 






648 35 


Flour, 879 barrels, . 






6,660 80 


Fruit, fresh and dried, 






113 82 


Furniture, 






332 19 


Gasoline, 50 barrels, 






469 79 


Groceries, 






297 94 


Hardware, .... 






244 01 


Improvements, 






515 03 


Labor, .... 






1,377 00 


Live stock, 






171 30 


Lumber, .... 






525 14 


Malt and hops, 






65 43 


Mason work, . 






163 12 


Meats, 28,052 lbs., . 


. • 




1,913 37 


Medicines, ... 






85 76 


Miscellaneous, 






320 08 


Molasses, 1,687 gallons, and sugar, 4,571 lbs., 


1,260 93 


Oil, 185 gallons, 


. 




142 28 



1874.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



23 



Pasturage, 








$150 00 


Printing-press and materials, 








116 01 


Bepairs, .... 








920 50 


Bice,' 3,682 lbs., . 








315 54 


Salaries, .... 








. 12,399 95 


Salaries of inspectors, 








420 00 


Seeds, .... 








57 33 


Salt, .... 








94 30 


Shoes, leather and repairs, 








2,336 15 


Soap and stock, 








211 19 


Smith-work and stock, 








181 69 


Steam-pump, . 








36 00 


Straw and hay, 17 tons, . 








254 85 


Tailoring, 








330 00 


Taking inventory, . 








100 00 


Tank, .... 








89 50 


Tools, agricultural and mechanical, 






144 44 


Transportation of freight and passengers, 




738 68 


Watching, 




91 42 




$45,601 55 



24 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



REPORT OF THE CHAPLAIN AND PRINCIPAL. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen : — The following table gives a summary view 
of the attendance and classification of the scholars in the 
institution at the date of this report. 



No. of 
School. 


TEACHER. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 


M. Lina Goodell, 2 Divisions, 
Rosamond A. Hill, 2 Divisions, 
Harriette E. Darte, 
Eugenia M. Fullington, 
Alice W. Emerson, 
Ellen S. Waters, . 
Mary E. Trask, . 








65 

77 
57 
63 

16 
23 


7 

50 
31 

28 


'72 
77 
57 
63 
50 
47 
51 












301 


116 


417 



Average attendance during the year, 
Average age of pupils, 



383 
10 years. 



The year closes with a larger attendance of pupils than at 
any previous time since the establishment of the State Primary 
School in 1866. On account of this family growth, we have 
been obliged to "lengthen the cords and strengthen the 
stakes," in affording more ample accommodations and better 
facilities for educational purposes. At the making up of the 
last annual report, the schools were in a crowded condition, 
and the winter months as usual brought considerable additions, 
so that it was found necessary to fit up another school-room. 
A new classification was made, a teacher employed, and the 
room occupied at the beginning of the year. There are now 
seven schools, with an aggregate of 417 pupils. The number 



1874.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 25 

of teachers remains the same as last year, the department of 
music and writing as a specialty having been abolished. The 
register still shows more children than can be supplied with 
desk-room, although this difficulty is in part obviated by the 
method pursued with the higher classes, involving alternate 
work and study. Lessons in writing are given by Miss 
Fullington out of the regular school hours, and the musical 
practice by the children is at present under the charge of 
the principal, assisted by Miss Goodell as organist. 

The year has been one of unusual success in the school 
departments. The teachers have done effective work in the 
drill of the different classes, and the progress in study has 
been marked. The grade of scholarship in the upper division 
is higher than it has been for several years. Some attention 
has been paid to history, composition, and drawing. One 
class has, been through the Common School Arithmetic, others 
are ciphering in interest, and still others in fractions. One 
scholar has studied the Elementary Algebra, and taken a few 
lessons in geometry. Three boys have recited to the prin- 
cipal in Latin, and two in French more than half of the year, 
and in this way have at the same time acquired a very good 
knowledge of English grammar. It will be seen by these 
statements, that so far from being a primary school in the 
common acceptation of the term, we comprise a graded series, 
beginning with the alphabet and advancing as far as the 
capacities of the scholars will admit. If we discover superior 
native talent that may be developed by culture and discipline, 
we are ready to bestow upon it special pains, that the material 
thus providentially placed in our hands may be moulded into 
such a shape as will render it serviceable to the world. We 
design to furnish the very best advantages for study to all 
who enter the school, and are disposed to learn. 

Many occupations in which the children engage, aside from 
the regular sessions of classes, must be regarded as subsidiary 
to the work of education, and they will, no doubt, in many 
cases, prove to have been the most important part of their 
preparation for practical life. We have spoken in previous 
reports, of the effect of musical culture upon the children, in 
soothing their passions and refining their tastes. We still 



26 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

continue to practice singing, not simply for amusement, but 
because it does them good. 

We referred, also, in the last report, to the manual labor 
department, which is so valuable in employing restless minds 
and mischievous hands, as well as in inducing habits of indus- 
try. The chair- work has been enlarged during the year ; 
128 boys are at present engaged in the shop four hours a clay. 

A new feature of the institution is the printing office, which 
affords both a means of entertainment and of instruction. A 
"Young America" press was purchased and set up in June, 
and the first number of our little paper, called the " Dew- 
Drop," was issued at that time. This paper which contains 
the contributions of scholars, as well as communications from 
their friends, is published bi-monthly. The whole work of 
setting type and printing is at present divided among seyen 
boys. It is as valuable to them as any school exercise, inas- 
much as it involves a practical application of the rules of 
orthography, at the same time that they are learning the com- 
positor's trade. When there is no printing to be done, the 
boys are kept setting up and distributing type as a rhetorical 
exercise, and we are not sure but that a similar plan might be 
advantageously adopted in some of the higher literary insti- 
tutions. The time may yet come when a printing-press shall 
be regarded as quite as important an appendage of a high 
school or academy, as its chemical or philosophical apparatus. 

This school is designed to be primary in the sense that it 
undertakes to aid and instruct those children who are especially 
exposed to evil, or who have taken only the initiatory step in 
the path of vice. The task of correcting and restraining those 
who are more advanced in crime is assigned to other hands. 
We sometimes find, however, that there has been a wrong 
classification. Occasionally we get a scholar who is beyond 
or rather below the standard, and who knows so much, that 
he is likely to become a preceptor of wickedness in the com- 
pany of those less vicious. Such a one must either be 
retained in the school to the detriment of the rest, or he must 
graduate into some other institution. Five boys have thus 
been transferred to Westborough the past year. Three of 
them had been there before. The others came from the courts 
through the visiting agent, and were afterwards found to be 



1874.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT -No. 25. 27 

unsuitable cases. We were unfortunate also last winter, in 
having returned to us several boys who had formerly gone 
out from this institution, and had become vicious or unman- 
ageable as they grew older. It is necessary that we recognize 
the family relationship, whenever these children come back 
to their old home, even though they may have passed the 
period of childhood, and have become decidedly vicious. 
Since they are lawfully ours, we cannot with good grace dis- 
own them, and so we bear the infliction, aiming to reform 
them if possible at the same time that we try to preserve the 
younger pupils from their influence. For these special rea- 
sons, the work of discipline has been more difficult the past 
year, and so high a standard of morals has not been attained 
as at some previous times. Still, there has been some good 
accomplished, as we trust. Religious instruction has been 
imparted and cheerfully received. The Sunday school con- 
certs have been interesting, and much pains has been taken 
by the teachers in preparing for them. The seed sown in 
the minds of these children now, will doubtless bear fruit in 
God's own time. May His Spirit help us to provide more 
liberally for the harvest of souls. 

CHARLES F. FOSTER. 

Monson, September 30, 1874. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 25. 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL EEPOET 



THE INSPECTOES 



- OF THE 

STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL 



M O N" S O N - 



October, 1875. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS, 
79 Milk Street (corner of Federal). 

1876. 



(Eomtnonrocaltt) of Jltassacljusctta. 



INSPBCTOES' EEPOET. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

Agreeably to the laws of the Commonwealth, we present 
our Twenty-Second Annual Report, or third of the full years 
of the State Primary School. 

The number of persons supported in the institution has 
been increasing for several years, as will be seen by the fol- 
lowing tables : — 

Number of persons in the institution, — 

October 1, 1872, 398 

" 1, 1873, V'.. 453 

1, 1874, . . . . . . . . 493 

" 1, 1875, 512 

Average number of persons supported in the institution,— 

For the year ending October 1, 1872, . . . . 431 

" " • " " 1, 1873, .... 424 

" " " u 1, 1874, .... 481 

" " " " 1, 1875, .... 496 

Number of children sent to the institution by the courts, — 

For the year ending October 1, 1873, .... 71 

" " " " 1, 1874, .... 61 

" " " " 1, 1875, .... 33 

Number of children placed out in families on trial, — 

For the year ending October 1, 1873, .... 138 

" " " 1, 1874, .... 125 

1, 1875, .... 152 



u 


a 


a 


a 


1, 1874, 


u 


a 


a 


a 


1, 1875, 



4 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Number of children returned from places, — 

For the year ending October 1, 1873, .... 41 

.... 45 

52 

Number of deaths in the institution, — 

For the year ending October 1, 1873, . . . . 6 

" " " 1, 1874, .... 18 

" " " " 1, 1875, .... 23 

It will also be seen that the number of children sent here 
by the courts has decreasedTor the last two years, while the 
number of children placed in families the last year has been 
larger than during either of the two previous years. We 
have granted every facility, and aided, so far as was in our 
power, those who have the placing out of the children more 
particularly in charge, in the accomplishment of their work ; 
believing, as we do, that it is far better for the children to be 
in good homes, with home and family influences, than in the 
institution ; and we are not of those who believe that it is 
best to retain the best children here for the sake of the 
influence they might have upon the more evil-disposed, for in 
due time the result might be the reverse of this, and the 
good become contaminated ; nor would we consider it just to 
the good children to be thus retained. 

This institution has done, and is still doing, a good work, 
but in our judgment fails to accomplish all that it ought. It 
is the opinion of this Board that this school was and is 
designed to care in the best way for the unfortunate children 
under its charge in every respect, — physically, intellectually 
and spiritually ; if physically impaired in any way, to restore 
them to healthful vigor, if possible, by the employment of 
good medical skill, that they may not come to manhood or 
womanhood sufferers for life, burdens to themselves, or to 
be always dependent upon the State for support ; to study 
and train their intellectual faculties so carefully that they may 
be led to think for themselves, to understand somewhat while 
young the true idea of justice, of self-control, of truth and 
right ; to have their tastes cultivated, so that they shall not 



1875.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 5 

grow up mere machines, liable to become the tools of others' 
caprice and evil designs, but rather be a value to themselves, 
to the community where their lot may be cast, and the State ; 
and above all, to have careful spiritual training, since so many 
connected with the school are of that age when the mind is 
most impressible ; when truth, thoroughly instilled, may ever 
abide with them, and thus prove a stumbling-block in the way 
of their embracing error, or any of the superstitions of the 
day. But how can children, with all the new developments 
of disease, be properly treated unless constant care is exer- 
cised by the physician to keep himself informed as to the 
varied forms in which it manifests itself, the methods of treat- 
ment, and the new and improved ways of treating old dis- 
eases ; or how can the intellect be stimulated and trained 
unless facilities are afforded to those having this work in 
charge for increasing their own knowledge of "ways and 
means," or unless some stimulus comes from the highest offi- 
cial, either by his own enthusiasm or sympathy expressed 
when discouragement comes, or by friendly suggestions given, 
in a way to make all feel that, while they are associated 
together, they are of one family, and equally interested in the 
same work ; or whence shall a child gain its idea of reverence 
to God and love to man unless he lives in an atmosphere 
of sympathy and love emanating from those highest in 
authority ? 

The Superintendent's report, accompanying our own, gives 
a financial statement of the institution, and an account of what 
has transpired in the Physician's department. 

Owing to the depression in business, the Superintendent 
has not been able to obtain work for the boys in the chair- 
shop to the extent we would have liked. 

Less attention has been given to printing within the last few 
months than previously. 

The school has been managed generally with economy, 
and the officers mostly have been efficient and faithful. 
On the first of May last, the Kev. Charles F. Foster, who 
had been the chaplain of the institution and principal of 
the school, as well as assistant superintendent, for several 
years, closed his labors here. The institution lost a most 
excellent officer ; he was beloved by the children as well as 



6 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

by the teachers and subordinate officers, and was peculiarly 
fitted for his position,— the training of the children ; his interest 
in them was great, and they went to him for advice and 
counsel as a child goes to a loving parent ; the success of the 
school in the past was largely owing to his connection with 
it. Since Mr. Foster left, the institution has been without a 
resident chaplain, which we consider most unfortunate, hav- 
ing to depend upon the neighboring village of Palmer for 
one, who conducts one service upon the Sabbath. We feel 
that it would be for the best interests of the four to five hun- 
dred children here, who are from three to sixteen years of 
age, to have a religious teacher. Mr. Julius C. Tibbetts suc- 
ceeded Mr. Foster as principal of the school, and, though he 
has been here a comparatively short time, he has made some 
improvements in the management of the children ; the dis- 
cipline is good, and he has conducted the school satisfactorily 
to the Iuspectors. The teachers generally have been compe- 
tent and faithful. The ventilation of the school-rooms is 
quite defective, and will remain so until better provisions for 
that purpose are introduced. For farther particulars relative 
to the details of the school, we refer you to the report of Mr. 
Tibbetts, which follows. 

The farm is in a high state of cultivation ; it yields a large 
amount of products, is well stocked, and gives evidence every- 
where that the Superintendent has engaged heartily and with 
all his energy in this work ; which is also seen in the care 
and improvement of the grounds and buildings ; and we would 
not wish for any diminution of the necessary labor to be per- 
formed, to make everything convenient, tidy and attractive; 
but we feel that the farm should ever be regarded as 
secondary in importance to the improving and training of 
the children. The products of the farm now on hand, as 
appraised by the Hon. George S. Taylor of Chicopee and 
William H. H. Wooster, Esq., of Springfield, amount to 
$8,473.48. A small barn has been built, and the chair-shop 
raised and a basement put underneath. 

The Superintendent, in his report, which accompanies our 
own, gives a more detailed account of what has been done on 
the farm, and in and about the buildings and yard. 

We recommend the purchase by the State of some five or 



1875.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



six acres of land, if it can be obtained at a reasonable price. 
Without farther comment, we copy from the report of last 
year of the Superintendent, having reference in part to this 
land : — 

" The roads so intersect it, that it must be passed by all having 
communication with the institution. On it, at the present time, is a 
tumbled-down saw-mill and dilapidated shanty, with such surround- 
ings as usually accompany such fixtures. Most people suppose, 
from their proximity, right in our face and eyes, that they belong 
to the State, and wonder why these nuisances are not abated, and 
the land not beautified and improved like the rest of the farm. 
Applications are now made for the purchase of parcels of this land, 
for the purpose of increasing these nuisances, and enlarging a settle- 
ment, by whose increase the products of the neighboring graperies 
and orchards, melon-patches and henneries, will diminish in a 
geometrical ratio." 



Officers and their Salaries. 
Horace P. Wakefield, Superintendent, . 
Julius C. Tibbetts, Ass't Superintendent and Principal, 
John N. Lacey, Engineer, 
Donald C. McCrimmon, Baker, 
George H. Fisherdick, Farmer, 
Sumner A. Andrews, Supervisor, . 
Uriah Manning, Assistant, . 
Henry A. Bailey, Watchman, 
George W. Keyes, Teamster, 
James Skevington, Assistant Engineer, 
J. Michael Sisk, Driver, 
Bradford M. Fullerton, Chaplain, . 
Climena Wakefield, Clerk, 
Mary B. Wakefield, Matron, 
Jane A. Keeler, Assistant Matron, 
Asenath Hadley, Nurse, 
Mary Andrews, Assistant, . 
Catherine McConnell, Seamstress, 
M. Lina Goodell, Teacher, . 
Ellen A. Hyde, Teacher, 
Harriette E. Darte, Teacher, . 
Eugenia M. Fullington, Teacher, . 
Mary E. Duncan, Teacher, . 
Laura A. Belding, Teacher, . 
Alice W. Emerson, Teacher, . 



•$1,800 00 
1,000 00 
1,200 00 
626 00 
600 00 
550 00 
360 00 
360 00 
360 00 
360 00 
360 00 
260 00 
500 00 
300 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Inspectors. 



Lewis N. Gilbert, . 
E. V. B. Holcomb, 
S. D. Brooks, 



$160 00 
160 00 
160 00 



Inventory of 1875. 

[Taken by George S. Taylor, of Chicopee, and William H. H. "Wooster, of 

Springfield.] 

Land, . . . . . . . $22,220 43 

Buildings, 90,580 00 



Heating, water and gas apparatus, . 
Carriages and agricultural implements, 
Products of farm, . .','.. 
Drugs, medicines, etc., 
Live-stock, .... 
Mechanical tools and machinery, 
Coal, . . . 
Dry goods, etc., 
Clothing, shoes, etc., 
Bedding, inmates' department, . 
Personal property, inmates' department, 

" " Superintendent's dep't, 

Groceries and provisions, 



Total real and personal estate, . 





— $112,800 43 


$17,500 00 




2,991 


53 




8,473 


48 




469 


15 




6,986 


00 




9,470 


05 




3,865 


68 




1,249 


49 




5,565 


78 




5,054 


40 




4,015 


12 




5,576 


84 




1,563 


53 


72,781 05 






. 


. $185,581 48 



LEWIS N. GILBERT, 
E. Y. B. HOLCOMB, 
S. D. BEOOKS, 

Inspectors. 



State Primary School, Monson, Oct. 1, 1875. 



1875.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S EEPOET. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen : — The undersigned, Superintendent of the 
State Primary School, would submit his Annual Report, 
October 1, as required by the rules and regulations of the 
institution. 

Receipts. 

Cash received from the unexpended appropriation of 

1874, $12,265 02 

Cash received from annual appropriation of 1875, . 31,238 56 
Cash received from special appropriation for altera- 
tions and repairs, . . . . . . , . 901 00 



Receipts from all appropriations, .... $44,404 58 
Receipts from all other sources, . . . . 1,711 40 



Total receipts, ....... $46,115 98 

Expenditures. 

Salaries, . . . ... . $12,336 36 

Provisions, . . . . . 12,291 86 

Other expenses, .... 18,875 36 

Total current expenditures, 
Cash paid from special appropriation 
for alterations and repairs, 

Total expenditures, . 
Cash paid into state treasury, . 

Total cash payments, . . . . $46,115 98 

2 



$43,503 58 
901 00 


$44,404 58 
1,711 40 



10 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



The number of persons in the institution, Oct. 1, 
1874, was 



493 



In State Prin 


aary School proper, 


. 


. 




423 




For support and temporary custody, 


• 




70 




Total admissions during the year ending Sept. 


30, 








1875, 


. 








292 


Transferred from Tewksbury 




. 






196 




Man, . 




. 




1 






Women, 




. . 




24 






Boys, . 




. 




111 






Girls, . 




. 




60 






Sent by courts, 




. . 






33 




Boys, . 




. 




31 






Girls, . 




. 




2 






Returned from places, . 




. . 






52 ■ 




Boys, . 




. 




33 






Girls, . 




. 




19 






Births, ... 




. 






4 




Boys, . 




. 




2 






Girls, . 




. 




2 






Truants, . . 




. 






3 




Boys, . 




. 




3 






Returned after elopement, 




. 






3 




Boys, . 




. 




3 






Returned from Eye and Ear Infirmar3 r , . 






1 




Boy, .... 


. 




1 






Total number of persons in the institution during 








the year ending Sept. 30, 1875, 


• 








785 


Total discharges during the year ending Sept. 


30, 








1875, . ' . 


. 








273 


Placed on trial, . 


. . 






152 




Boys, . . . . 


. 




100 






Girls, . . . - . 


. 




52 






Discharged by Board of State Charities, 






79 




Women, 


. 




12 






Boys, . 


. 




49 






Girls, . 


. 


. 




18 






Deserted, 


. . 


. 






8 




Man, 


... 


. 




1 






Boys, 


. 


. 




7 






Died, . 


. . 


. 






23 




Males, 


• . . . 


. 




15 






Females 


, 


. 


.* 




8 







1875.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25, 



11 



Transferred to Tewksbury, . 

Woman, . . ... 

Boys, .... 
Transferred to Westborough, 

Boys, 

Transferred to Lancaster, 

Girl, . . . . . 
Discharged by expiration of sentence 

Boy, . . . . 
Sent to Massachusetts Hospital, . 

Boy, 

Sent to Eye and Ear Infirmary, . 

Boy, ..... 

Total number of persons remaining in the institu 
tion, Oct. 1, 1875, . 

In State Primary School proper, 

Boys, . 

Girls, . 
For support, 

Men, . 

Women, 

Boys, . 

Girls, . 
For temporary custody, 

Boy, 

Children from the State Almshouse, placed out by 
Visiting Agent, ..... 

Boys, ...... 

Girls, . . . . 

Number of these children who have returned 

Boys, 

Girls, . . . . 

Children from the. State Almshouse, placed out by 
the Board of State Charities, .... 
Boy, . . . . . 
Girls, 

Children from the Courts, placed out by Visiting 

Agent, 

Boys, . . . . 
Girls, . . . . . 
Number of these children who have returned, 
Boys, . 



322 
114 

4 
46 
12 
13 



50 
42 

11 

9 



43 

8 



4 
1 
1 
1 
1 

436 

75 



20 



512 



92 



51 



12 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Children from the Courts, placed out by the Board 

of State Charities, ...... 6 

Boys 6 

Number of these children who have returned, 1 

Boy, 1 

Children placed out during the year, . . . 152 

Number of these who have returned, ... 26 

Remaining in places, Oct. 1, 1875, ... 126 

Boys, . 83 

Girls, . . . . . . .43 

Number of indentures executed for the 95 
children from the State Almshouse, placed 
out during the year ending Sept. 30, 1875, 7 

Boy, 1 

Girls, 6 

Whole number of indentures executed during the 

year ending Sept. 30, 1875, .... 15 

Boys, 5 

Girls, 10 

Average number supported in the institution dur- 
ing the year ending Sept. 30, 1875, . . . 496 

Average cost per week for each person, . . $1.69 

Deducting $1,711.40 (the amount paid into the 
state treasur} 7 ) from the current expenditures, 
$43,503.58, it will leave the cost, per week, for 
each inmate of the institution, . ... $1.62 

Of the amount of the special appropriation ($901) unex- 
pended at the time of submitting the last report, $234.40 has 
been expended in putting in about three hundred feet of 
3-inch cement-pipe, to supply two new hydrants; $358.32 
in material for the new barn, fifty feet by thirty-three ; and 
$308.28 in raising the chair-shop, and constructing another 
story under the same. 

Some of the minor improvements made during the year are 
Sweet's baker, set in the kitchen ; new iron tanks, placed in 
the boys' and girls' yards ; and a brick tunnel constructed 
from the boiler-house to the main building, inclosing the 
pipes carrying the steam from, and returning the water to 



1875.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 13 

the boilers, for better protection of them from radiation, and, 
in case of accident, enabling us to repair them without delay 
in digging them up through the frozen ground, and exposing 
all the inmates, with no means of warming, to the rigor of a 
New England winter. 

The whole number of chairs seated during the year is 
11,599. For this work, $571.47 has been paid over to the 
state treasurer, while the boys have received $98.52. The 
work of chair manufacturing, like most other kinds of busi- 
ness, has been depressed ; prices for filling seats have been 
growing small and beautifully less, and it has been impossible 
to obtain sufficient work at any price. 

There have been received into the Primary School during 
the year, as truants, three boys, who are now here ; and one 
has been discharged by expiration of sentence. There has 
been received from the towns and city sending these children, 
the sum of $137.14, and there is due this day the additional 
sum of $83.15. 

In October and November we had an epidemic of scarla- 
tina, and many of the cases were severe, though but few were 
of the malignant type. We have had isolated cases of these 
diseases during the last seven years, but this was the first 
epidemic. In February and March, another epidemic of 
typhoid pneumonia, prevailing in many parts of the State, 
visited us, and many cases were of grave character. The 
whole number admitted to the hospital during the year was 
603 ; the average number in the hospital, 36. 

The number of deaths was 23 — males, 15 ; females, 8. 
One died of each of the following diseases : Convulsions, 
congestion of lungs, gangrene, collapse, scrofula, meningitis, 
disease of heart, cholera morbus, and paralysis. Two died of 
scarlatina, and three each of typhoid pneumonia, disease of 
spine, influenza, and phthisis. 

The crops of the farm are above the average. The product 
of milk exceeds that of last year by more than sixteen tons. 
The crop of hay is larger than in any previous year, except 
the last. This crop was curtailed by the excessive drought 
in the month of May. The value of the products of the farm 
inventoried, together With that of the products sold and con- 
sumed, reckoned at the same prices as those inventoried, 



14 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

exceeds the sum of $16,000, while the expense in carrying on 
the same varies but little from that of last year. 

The schools are in good condition, and a majority of the 
teachers and officers are efficient, and make laudable efforts to 
discharge their duties faithfully. The children are healthy 
and happy, are under better discipline, more even and decided 
training, move with greater precision, evince more method in 
their round of duties, in school, in play and in work, than in 
terms gone by, and give evidence of physical, musical, intel- 
lectual and moral progress. 

The morale of the inmates, adults and children is improv- 
ing, and the institution runs with less friction within itself 
than at any former period since my connection with it. 

HORACE P. WAKEFIELD. 

State Pkimary School, Oct. 1, 1875. 



1875.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25, 



15 



DETAILED ACCOUNT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES. 



Beans, 111 bushels, and pease, 38 bushels, 
Books, newspapers, postage and stationery, 
Bricks, cement and lime, 
Carriages and harnesses, . . 

Clothing, 

Coal, 459 tons, . . 

Coffee, 3,492 lbs., and tea, 479 lbs., 

Corn, 1,244 bushels, and oats, 147 bushels, 

Crockery, glass, tin and wooden ware, 

Feed, 3,790 lbs., and meal, 37,538 lbs., 

Fertilizers, 

Fish, 16,625 lbs., 

Flour, 716 bbls., 

Furniture, beds ami bedding. 

Gasoline, 44 bbls., 

Groceries, . 

Hardware, . 

Improvements, 

Labor, 

Lumber, 

Mason-work, 

Meats, 31,432 lbs 

Medicines, . 

Miscellaneous, 

Molasses, 2,372 gallons, and sugar, 4,456 lbs., 

Pasturage, . 

Repairs, 

Rice, 3,148 lbs., 

Salaries, 

Salaries of Inspectors, 

Amount carried forward, 



$313 


75 


418 


67 


219 


85 


63 


80 


2,773 


58 


3,490 


88 


613 


18 


1,294 


82 


240 


61 


633 


27 


146 


41 


659 


15 


4,424 


25 


1,679 


40 


420 


31 


619 


21 


370 


53 


730 


92 


1,427 


62 


309 


85 


564 


37 


1,903 


19 


114 


58 


269 


34 


1,588 


44 


125 


00 


983 


60 


242 


60 


12,336 


36 


434 


90 


$39,412 44 



16 



PEIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON, 



[Oct. 



Amount brought forward, 
Shoes, leather and repairs, 
Smith-work and stock, 
Soap and stock, . 
Straw, 23 tons, . 
Tailoring, . 
Taking inventory, 
Tools, agricultural and mechanical, 
Transportation of freight and passengers,- 
Watching, 



$39,412 44 


1,866 


14 


182 


01 


165 


27 


398 


92 


330 


00 


100 


00 


199 


47 


766 


33 


83 


00 


$43,503 


58 



1875.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



17 



PRODUCTS OF THE FARM. 



■187* 


tons 


English hay. 


113 bushels 


» apples. 


42 




rowen. 


3 


u 


pears. 


3 




Hungarian grass. 


1* 


u 


quinces. 


H 




corn-fodder. 


3,300 


pounds winter squashes. 


20 




green fodder. 


2,700 


u 


summer squashes 


106* 




milk. 


1,105 


u 


watermelons. 


1,357 heads of cabbage. 


1,628 


u 


muskmelons. 


1,600 bushels 


mangolds. 


300 


u 


rhubarb. 


600 






carrots. 


5,211 


u 


beef. 


775 






English turnips. 


11,133 


u 


pork. 


300 






ruta-bagas. 


256 


a 


veal. 


63 






beets. 


44 


u 


lamb. 


50 






parsnips. 


178 


u 


hides and skins. 


83 






onions. 


96| 


« 


wool. 


1,362 






potatoes. 


45 


cords 


wood. 


46 






cucumbers. 


341 


u 


manure. 


56 






tomatoes. 


3,000 


feet 


lumber. 


55 






sweet-corn ears. 


77 


pigs. 




25 






beans in pods. 


29 


calves 




22 






pease in pods. 


11 


lambs. 





18 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



PEIICIPAL'S KEPOKT 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen : — I respectfully submit for your consideration 
my Report. for the year ending September 30, 1875. 

No very important change in the general management of 
the school has been made, and, as my connection with the 
same has been only for a short period, no extended remarks 
or suggestions on my part seem to be called for. 

The whole number of children in the school during the year 

has been 679 

The largest number at any one time was .... 448 

The smallest number at any one time was .... 365 

Average attendance, . . . . . . . 413 

The schools are seven in number, arranged and classified as 
follows : — 

No. 1, in charge of Miss M. Lina Goodell, contains sixty- 
five boys, in two divisions, alternating (when there is work) 
between the school-room and chair-shop. 

The average age is thirteen years. This has been a mixed 
school until the present term ; but the number of large girls 
having been somewhat reduced, it was deemed expedient to 
transfer those remaining in this room to No. 5, thus leaving 
the two upper schools entirely for boys. 

The books used are Edwards' Fourth Reader, Worcester's 
Progressive Speller, Cornell's Grammar School and Monteith's 
Manual of Geography, Green's Introduction to Grammar, 
Eaton's Intellectual and Common School Arithmetic. The 
whole school devotes one hour each day to writing, while 
1 essons in map-drawing are given once or twice each week. 



1875.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 19 

No. 2 is in charge of Miss Ellen A. Hyde, who entered 
upon duty May 1. In this room there are sixty-nine boys, 
divided for study and work as in No. 1. The average age is 
eleven years. 

The books used are Edwards' Intermediate Reader, Col- 
ton's Intellectual Arithmetic ; also Cornell's Primary Geogra- 
phy, which has been introduced this term. All are drilled, 
each day, in writing and the multiplication-table, a thorough 
knowledge of the latter being required before promotion. 
Writing with ink has not been taught before the present 
term in this school, I believe ; and for want of desk-room in 
No. 1 — where the writing-school was held four evenings in 
each week — but seventeen boys from this school had ever 
received instruction. All are now provided with suitable 
writing-books, pens and ink, and practise thirty minutes each 
session. The children manifest considerable interest in writ- 
ing, and I am happy to say the improvement is quite marked. 

No. 3 is in charge of Mrs. Harriette E. Darte, and contains 
fifty-seven boys, the average age being ten years. The 
studies pursued are reading (Edwards' Third Reader is used),- 
writing, spelling, multiplication-table, and various slate and 
oral exercises. 

These boys have attended school five hours a day through 
the summer, instead of working half of that time as they 
have formerly done. We have had but little to do in the 
chair-seating line, and the boys from the shop could con- 
veniently be spared to perform the required amount of work 
upon the farm ; it was therefore thought best to keep this 
school in all day. In this way they have had an advantage 
over the pupils of the two higher schools, and they appear 
to have made good use of their time, and profited by the 
excellent training received from their teacher. 

No. 4 is in charge of Miss Eugenia M. Fullington, and con- 
tains seventy-three boys, of an average age of nine years. 

This is the lowest class in the boys' department, and is 
much more difficult to grade than either of the other schools, 
owing to the fact that the majority of boys received into the 
institution enter this .school, regardless of age or size, their 
attainments not being sufficient to admit them to either of the 
higher schools. 



20 PEIMAEY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

The books used are Edwards' First and Second Eeaders. 
A part of the boys are practised daily in the multiplication- 
table, oral exercises in mental arithmetic, and about half of 
the school is learning to write. 

Miss Fullington has been, until the present term, the 
teacher of penmanship to the two upper schools ; but as 
it was decided that this branch should be taught in the 
several schools, her services in that capacity were no longer 
required. 

No. 5 is in charge of Miss Mary E. Duncan, who suc- 
ceeded Mrs. Alice Emerson August 22. The school under 
her management was very prosperous, and her loss was much 
felt and regretted. The present teacher has had large 
experience, and we think the indications are that the school 
has been fortunate in securing her services. 

There are forty-five girls in this room, their average age 
>emg eleven years. 

The books used are Edwards' Third and Fourth Eeaders, 
Cornell's Primary and Grammar School Geography, Colton's 
Intellectual and Eaton's Common School Arithmetic. Each 
scholar is practised daily in writing. 

No. 6 has also undergone a change of teachers. Miss 
Lindsey resigned July 2, and was succeeded by Miss Laura 
A. Belding. 

There are twenty-three girls and thirty-one boys in this 
room, their average age being eight years. 

The books used are Edwards' First, Second and Third 
Eeaders. A part write and study the multiplication-table daily. 
The teacher, aside from her regular school duty, practises 
the children of all the schools one hour each day in singing. 
They have learned several pieces under her direction, and 
sing them in a manner alike creditable to themselves and 
their instructor. 

No. 7 has been without any regular teacher a large part of 
the time since the resignation of Miss Hadley, which took 
place June 14. 

Mrs. Emerson has recently returned and taken charge of 
this school. It contains thirty-six boys and thirty-seven 
girls. The average age is five years. 

But little is attempted beyond the alphabet in this room. 



1875.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 21 

Miss Goodell has had charge of the choir, and played for 
the Sunday services and daily devotional exercises. 

A Sabbath school has been held in the several schools 
under the direction of the teachers. We have had Sunday- 
school concerts as often as practicable, which have been both 
interesting and profitable. 

The school has run smoothly during my connection with it. 
Most of the teachers have labored faithfully, and the pupils 
under their charge have made commendable progress in their 
studies. The discipline has been easy, and kept up to the 
standard with but little friction. 

The boys, out of school, have been under the immediate 
care of Mr. Sumner A. Andrews, who, for the manner in 
which he has discharged all his duties, is deserving of great 
credit. 

The Superintendent, Dr. Wakefield, has kept us well sup- 
plied with books, and has placed at my disposal every facility 
for the successful management of the school department. 

In conclusion, accept my thanks for the kindness and 
courtesy I have received from the members of your Board; 

JULIUS C. TIBBETTS. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 25. 



TWENTY-THIKD ANNUAL EEPOET 



THE INSPECTORS 



STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL 



M O N" S O N". 



October, 1876 



BOSTON: 

ALBERT J. WRIGHT, STATE PRINTER 
79 Milk Street (corner of Federal). 

1877. 



€ommonroealtl) of Jtta00atf)U0rtt0. 



INSPECTORS' KBPORT. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Inspectors of the State Primary School respectfully 
present their Twenty-Third Annual Keport, or fourth of the 
full years of the School. 

We present the following tables, which will explain them- 
selves :- — 

Number of persons in the institution, — 



October 


1, 


1872, 


a 


1, 


1873, 


u 


1, 


1874, 


u 


1, 


1875, 


a 


1, 


1876, 



398 
453 
493 
512 
546 



Average number of persons supported in the institution, — 



* the year 


ending 


October 1, 1872, . 


. 


431 


u u 


u 


u 


1, 1873, . 


. . 


424 


a u 


u 


a 


1, 1874, . 


• » 


481 


u u 


a 


u 


1, 1875, . 




496 


u a 


U 


a 


1, 1876, . 


. 


515 



Number of children sent to the institution by the courts, — 



•the 


year 


ending 


October 1, 


1873, 


. 


u 


u 


u 


U 


1, 


1874, 


. 


a 


u 


u 


u 


1, 


1875, 


. 


a 


u 


(( 


u 


1, 


1876, 


. 



71 
61 
33 

54 



4 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Number of children placed out in families on trial, — 



For the 


year 


ending 


October 


1, 


1873, . 


u 


u 


a 


u 


1, 


1874, . 


u 


a 


a 


a 


1. 


1875, . 


(( 


u 


a 


a 


1, 


1876, . 



Number of children returned from places,- 



For the 


year 


ending 


October 1, 


1873, . 


u 


u 


a 


a 


1, 


1874, . 


u 


u 


u 


u 


1, 


1875, . 


a 


a 


u 


a 


1, 


1876, . 



138 
125 
152 
142 



41 
45 
52 
39 



Number of deaths in the institution, — 

For the year ending October 1, 1873, . . . . 6 

" " " 1, 1874, ..... 18 

" " " " 1, 1875, . 23 

" 1, 1876, .... 32 



u u u 



We have nothing of special interest to record as regards 
the prosperity of the School, but rather have still to mourn, 
as we did last year, the minor regard which, in our judg- 
ment, is paid to the highest interests of the School by the 
Superintendent. We feel there is much to be done to make 
the School what it ought to be. The State has been liberal 
on its part, and we have no doubt will be in the future, in 
furnishing pecuniary aid ; and with a superintendent with 
proper qualities, the institution presents an inviting and en- 
couraging field for the accomplishment of great good. But 
with a superintendent whose tastes, heart, and life are in the 
farm, who gives time which belongs to the State, and is need- 
ed in its service, to attending agricultural fairs and agricult- 
ural conventions, even at a time when the children were 
dying almost daily, can it be expected that the State Primary 
School, under such management, can accomplish all that it 
should? We regret that a higher Christian philanthropy has 
not characterized the management of the institution. The 
food of the children has been in some respects seriously de- 
fective and deficient, notwithstanding the protestations of the 



1876.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 5 

Inspectors. The importance of a substantial, nutritious, and 
carefully arranged diet and regimen for such a class of chil- 
dren, herded together as they are, cannot be overestimated 
in preventing fatal epidemics, and the prevalence of diseased 
eyes ; and it is no less important in a prospective and eco- 
nomic view. Children thus situated may do well and be ap- 
parently healthy during the mild seasons, on tolerable or in- 
different diet and care ; but when severe weather, attended 
with sudden changes of temperature ensues, predispositions 
to disease are readily developed, and they fall an easy prey 
to epidemic and kindred influences. Ophthalmia, or diseased 
eyes, is the opprobrium of institutions of this kind, and is 
viewed by some as a necessary accompaniment or sequence, 
but modern experience justifies an opposite conclusion ; isola- 
tion from others, and proper regimen, are both preventive and 
curative. The general health of the inmates, with the excep- 
tion of ophthalmia, granulated eyes, and measles, has been 
fair. During the winter months, this latter disease prevailed 
extensively, proving unusually fatal. At the time the dis- 
ease was at its height, the Superintendent absented himself 
from the institution for two or three days, attending, accord- 
ing to the best knowledge and belief of the Inspectors, an 
agricultural convention. Over the remains of the inmates 
who died during the year, who were mostly children, not a 
prayer was offered, nor a funeral song sung, nor a word 
spoken, nor even the semblance of a funeral was observed, 
like the gathering of a few of their mates together to follow 
and witness the laying away of the body in the grave ; but 
they were taken by some of the outside laborers from the 
dead-house to the burying-place, — a burial inconsistent with 
a refined and loving heart, especially in this Christian Com- 
monwealth. 

What is the influence of all this, — what, but in part a loss 
of opportunities which any Christian man might use to im- 
press upon the children a thought of something beyond this 
world, better and more to be enjoyed than that which is 
found in this life ? The Inspectors have anxiously and cour- 
teously sought to correct some of the defects in the internal 
management of the institution, and elevate the standard of 
its legitimate work, as alike clue to the children and the State, 



PRIMAKY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



present and prospectively ; but their efforts have been coarse- 
ly met as intermeddling with the prerogatives of the Super- 
intendent. To sum up in a word, it is the opinion of the 
Inspectors that there are many defects in the management 
of the institution which cannot be corrected without the 
co-operation of the Superintendent. 

The farm is in good condition, well stocked, and the crops 
good for the season ; but too much of the Superintendent's 
time, and the State's money is spent upon it, that should be 
applied directly upon the children. The Superintendent's 
report, herewith inclosed, gives a financial statement of the 
institution, a detailed account of what has been done on the 
farm and about the buildings and yard, the current expenses 
and products of the farm, and what has transpired in the 
Physician's department. We find in Mr. Julius C. Tibbetts, 
the Principal of the school, a competent, faithful, and gentle- 
manly officer, who, assisted by a corps of faithful teachers, 
has discharged his duties acceptably. We commend his re- 
port, herewith annexed, also, for your consideration, relative 
to the details of the school. 



Officers, Assistants, and their Salaries. 



Horace P. Wakefield, Superintendent, . 

Julius C. Tibbetts, Ass't Superintendent and Principal, 

Donald C. McCrimmon, Baker, 

John B. McConnell, Tailor, . 

Edward Goodes, Shoemaker, 

Henry A. Bailey, Watchman, 

George W. Kej-es, Teamster, 

Mary B. Wakefield, Matron, 

Jane A. Keeler, Matron, 

Catherine McConnell, Seamstress, 

Charlotte A. St. John, Girls' Nurse, 

James C. Lalle}^ Boys' Nurse, 

Bradford M. Fullerton, Chaplain, 

William Holbrook, Medical Attendant, 

Laura A. Belding, Teacher, 

Mary E. Duncan, Teacher, 

Harriette E. Darte, Teacher 

Ellen A. Hyde, Teacher, 

M. Lina Goodell, Teacher, 



$1,800 00 
1,000 00 
626 00 
360 00 
480 00 
360 00 
360 00 
300 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
150 00 
260 00 
300 00 
330 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 



1876.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25, 



Eugenia M. Fullington, Teacher, 
Alice W. Emerson, Teacher, 
George H. Fisherdick, Farmer, 
William S. Page, Farmer, 
Stillman J. Baker, Farmer, 
George H. Stone, Laborer, 
Reuben S. Walls, Laborer, 
William F. Floyd, Laborer, 
F. C. Tourtellotte, Laborer, 
Dennis Farrell, Laborer, 
Cornelius Murphy, Laborer, 
William Kelley, Laborer, 
Thomas Morris, Laborer, 
Eugene Holmes, Laborer, 
George E. Davis, Carpenter, per day, 



$250 00 

250 00 

600 00 

360 00 

300 00 

300 00 

300 00 

300 00 

300 00 

180 00 

120 00 

60 00 

60 00 

60 00 

2 75 



The following persons are in the institution, acting in the 
positions designated, — 



John N. Lacey, Engineer. 

Sumner A. Andrews, Supervisor. 

Mary Andrews, Assistant. 

A. S. Barnard, Cook. 

Uriah Manning, Assistant. 

J. Michael Sisk, Driver. 

James Skevington, Assistant Engineer. 

H. J. Moulton, Clerk. 



Inspectors. * 

Lewis N. Gilbert, $160 00 

E. V. B. Holcomb, . . . . . . . 160 00 

S. D. Brooks, . . 160 00 

Inventory of 1876. 

[Taken by Charles A. Taylor, of Chicopee, and William H. H. Wooster, of 

Springfield.] 

Land, $22,465 43 

Buildings, . . . . . . 91,180 00 

$113,645 43 

Live-stock, $6,876 00 

Produce of farm on hand, . . . 9,750 82 

Carriages and agricultural implements, 2,903 80 

Amounts carried forward, . . $19,530 62 $113,645 43 



8 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Amounts brought forward, 
Machinery and mechanical fixtures, . 
Beds and bedding, inmates' department, 
Other furniture, " « 

Personal, property , Superintendent's dep't 
Ready-made clothing 
Dry goods, 

Provisions and groceries, 
Drugs and medicines, 
Fuel, . . . 
Library and school-books, 
Heating, gas, and water apparatus, 



Total real and personal estate, 



. $19,530 62 


$113,645 43 


. 9,459 10 




. 5,112 41 




. 4,591 11 




, 5,456 96 




. 6,682 13 




1,234 29 




. 3,298 10 




400 00 




. 3,594 50 




392 77 




. 17,500 00 






77,251 99 




$190,897 42 



LEWIS N. GILBERT, 
E. V. B. HOLCOMB, 
S. D. BROOKS, 

Inspectors. 



State Primary School, Monson, Oct. 1, 1876. 



1876.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen : — By the rules and regulations of the State 
Primary School, the Superintendent is required "on the 
first day of October, to submit to the Inspectors a Eeport 
respecting the affairs of the institution." So far as I can, 
I herewith comply ; but not having been furnished with an 
inventory, which the statutes require to be taken annually, 
September 30th, I can only give an approximation to the 
products of the farm, now on hand, and also of the total 
value of all the products as inventoried by the appraisers. 

Financial and Statistical. 
Expenses. 

Salaries, $12,268 41 

Provisions, 13,758 15 

Other expenses, 20,554 07 

Total expenses, $46,580 63 

Receipts. 
Cash received from unexpended appropriation of 

1875, $12,761 44 

Cash received from annual appropriation, 1876, . 28,832 28 
Received from sale of produce, labor, and from other 

sources, ........ 1,100 39 

Total receipts, . . . . . . $42,694 11 

The sum received from sale of produce, and from other 
sources ($1,100.39), has been paid over to the Treasurer of 
the Commonwealth ; and of the amount of expenses ($46,- 
580.63), there yet remains unpaid the sum of $4,986.91, as 
follows : — 

2 



10 PKIMARY SCHC 


)OL AT MOI 


S T SON. 


[Oct. 


Salaries, 




■ $2,274 45 


Miscellaneous bills, 


* 


2,712 46 




$4,986 91 








1875, was 


. 


512 


In State Primary School proper, . 


. • 


436 


For support and temporary custody, . 


• 


76 


Total admissions during the year ending Sept. 30 


» 




1876, . 




373 


Transferred from State Almshouse, 




271 


Men, ... 


. 17 




Women, 


* . 


. 41 




Boys, . 


. 


. 131 




Girls, . 


. 


. 82 




Sent by courts, . 


. 




54 


Boys, . 


. 


. 49 




Girls, . 


. 


5 




Eeturned from places, 


. 




39 


Boys, . 


. 


. 28 




Girls, . 


. 


. 11 




Births, 


. 




5 


Boys, .... 


. 


2 




Girls, . 


. 


3 




Transferred from Westboro' 


Reform School, 




2 


Returned after elopement, 


. 




1 


Truant, .... 


. 




1 


Total number of persons in the institution during 


> 




the year ending Sept. 30, 1876, 




885 


Total discharges during the year ending Sept. 30 






1876, 




339 


Placed " on trial," . 




142 


Boys, 


115 




Girls, 


27 




Discharged by Board of State Charities, 




144 


Men, 


2 




Women, . . . . > 


32 




Boys, . . . . . 


67 




Girls, . 


43 




Deserted, 




14 


Men, 


5 




Women, ...... 


3 




Boys, .... 


. 


6 





1876.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



11 



Died, 



32 



Man, . 








1 




Women, 








2 




Boys, .... 






i 


10 




Girls, .... 








19 




Transferred to State Almshouse, Tewksbury 




5 


Transferred to State Reform School, West- 






borough, . . . . ... 




1 


Truant (expiration of sentence), 




1 


Children from State Almshouse, placed out by 






Visiting Agent, ...... 






Boys, .... 




. 


69 




Girls, . 




, 


24 




Number returned, 




, 




13 


Boys, .... 




. 


7 




Girls, . 




• 


6 




Children from courts, placed out by Visiting 


• 




Agent, 






Boys, . . M^ 




. 


46 




Girls, .... 




. , 


3 




Number returned, 




. , 




4 


Boys, . 




" • 


4 




Number of indentures issued for children 


L 




placed out since Oct. 1, 1875, . 







Number of indentures issued since Oct. 1 






1875, 




2 


Total number of persons remaining Sept. 30 


> 




1876, . . . . 






In State Primary School proper, 








431 


Boys, . 






322 




Girls, . 








109 




For support, 










113 


Men, . 








. 14 




Women, 








47 




Boys, . 








. 24 




Girls, . 








. 28 




In temporary custody, 










2 


Boy, . . . 








1 




Girl, . 








1 





93 



49 



546 



12 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Average number supported in the institution for the 

year ending Sept. 30, 1876, ..... 515 

Average cost per week for each person, . . . $1 74 

Deducting from the current expenses ($46,580.63) the 
amount received from sale of produce and from other 
sources ($1,100.39), and the increase of the inven- 
tory of real and personal estate for 1876 over that 
of 1875 ($5,315.94), the average cost per week for 
each person is . . . . . . . . $1 50 

Chair-seating. 

The whole number of chairs seated during the year is 
8,939, and there has been received for the same the sum 
of $244.98, which has been paid over to the state treasury, 
and there remains now due, $151.42. During the early part of 
the year, it was difficult to obtain work, owing to the stagna- 
tion of business. Latterly, although prices have diminshed, 
more work could have been obtained, had we been permitted 
to employ and pay competent help to oversee the business. 

Last May, the only man on the ground w^ho understood the 
business, left, because his wages were reduced to twenty-five 
dollars per month. Since then, little has been done except 
finishing some small lots for the accommodation of those who 
furnish the work. The prices are now so low that the busi- 
ness does not pay, only in the way of finding something for 
idle hands to do, which otherwise might be in worse employ- 
ment. We have from time to time been "docked" more 
than one hundred dollars on account of poor work, because 
the boys had not been properly looked after. I have not 
been able to find a man who understands the business, and 
who is suitable to have charge of the boys, for twenty-five 
dollars per month. More is lost by being under such train- 
ing and discipline a part of the day, than the best teachers 
and disciplinarians can regain during the remainder of the 
day. Money paid to a cheap, incompetent overseer, in my 
opinion, is worse than wasted. 

School-room. 
During last winter the schools were so crowded that it 
seemed necessary to provide another school-room, and em- 
ploy another teacher. I fitted up another room on the first 



1876.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 13 

floor of the chair-shop, and moved the chair-seating benches 
from the story above, so that both shops are on the same 
floor, and in adjoining rooms. The room thus vacated, I 
fitted up for a school-room. A parcel of old seats, that had 
been thrown aside for their antiquity, for years, I made over 
into double and single seats. These, when painted, varnished, 
and equipped with some new standards at a small expense, 
made very convenient and respectable furniture for a school- 
room. This school was discontinued when the surplus num- 
ber left last spring, but the indications now are that it will 
have to be reopened this winter. 

Milk-room. 
Since the farm has enabled us to largely increase our milk 
products, we have been sadly deficient in dairy accommo- 
dations. Last year we applied steam, and with Bullard's 
oscillating churn, have harnessed and converted this never- 
wearied power into an ally in butter-making. This year we 
enlarged the passage-way between the dining and cook 
rooms, making a- room 24 by 9. This room is in the imme- 
diate vicinity of where the milk is used, is screened from the 
sun, except a few hours, and also opening into both dining- 
hall and bakery, thus rendering it both cool in summer and 
warm in winter. In this, we have constructed a refrigerator 
capable of holding several hundred pounds of ice, and have 
also put in a set of the Morrisville milk-pans to the extreme 
convenience of Mrs. Wakefield, who, in addition to her other, 
manifold duties, has assumed those of dairy-maid the pres- 
ent season. 

Barn. 

Last year was constructed a new barn, 50 by 33, between 
the storehouse and carriage-house. The space under the 
carriage-house was formerly an open shed. This, 50 by 24, 
I inclosed, and constructed the same for the accommodation 
of fifteen head of cattle. For the hay in the barn erected 
last year, the access is easy, thus affording good convenience 
for young cattle, while the room under the barn affords ample 
and warm accommodations for raising pigs and lambs during 
the extreme cold of winter. 



14 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



Girls' Water-closet. 

In the basement-room, refitted for the girls' accommoda- 
tion, I have constructed a water-closet, the soil-pipe of which 
has been connected with a flue in the chimney. This is a 
decided improvement in ventilation, and furnishes the girls 
as good conveniences as were made for the boys two years 



Reservoir. 

In 1874, the Legislature made an appropriation of $1,000 
"to make improvements at the State Primary School at 
Monson." 

Three hundred and thirty-four dollars and forty cents were 
spent by order of the Inspectors for additional hydrants, 
much against my conviction of expediency, inasmuch as for 
a part of the year we had not water sufficient for a single 
hydrant. 

A reservoir which ought to have held fifty thousand gallons 
of water, had it been constructed in accordance with the prin- 
ciple that water finds its own level, had been dug on the hill 
in the rear of the buildings before the State owned the land. 
For more than three months this season, however, we have 
been without water, and, in case of fire, the hydrants would 
have been useless. Some six weeks ago, the Board of State 
Charities transferred from Tewksbury to the State Primary 
School a colony of thirty-seven Poles and some French Can- 
adians. The men were young, able-bodied and healthy. 
Of this circumstance I availed myself, and have utilized their 
labor in excavating a reservoir on the upper side of the old 
one, which not only will enable the old one to be filled, but 
also is capable of holding itself some three hundred thousand 
gallons of water. This will be filled by the spring and fall 
rains, which, together with the rainfall of showers from the 
water-shed from the mountain in the summer, will, I think, 
give us a continual supply. At any rate, we shall have 
gained something, if we only have secured the filling of the 
old reservoir. 

At the suggestion of His Excellency, the governor, the 
water-jets in the boys' sinks have been supplemented with 



1876.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 15 

basins, night-shirts provided for the boys, and each one 
furnished with a separate towel for his own use. 

The sanitary condition of the institution has been better 
than the average, except for a few weeks during an epidemic 
of measles. Some time in January, the measles broke out 
among the children, and it never could be ascertained from 
what source it originated. It probably was communicated 
by some visitor passing through the institution, since many 
cases occurred about the same time, on the first appearance of 
the disease. The epidemic itself was of a mild type, no 
case proving fatal, unless complicated with some other dis- 
ease, — only one case, a child previously healthy, and that 
had passed the critical period, when it took cold, while in 
the care of its own mother, who exposed it in violation of 
express orders. 

The children that succumbed were of a hereditary scrofu- 
lous or syphilitic taint. The sequelae of the measles which 
proved fatal, were a combination of a typhoid type of pneu- 
monia, croup and diphtheria. 

Whole number of deaths during the year, 32, — males, 11 ; 
females, 21; 23 in the month of February. Of these, three 
were adults, and 17 were here for support, under three years 
old. Only 12 were members of the Primary School. 
Nineteen of these children had mothers in the institution, 
and most of them cared for them during their sickness. 

The crops of the farm have been good, although there was 
a failure of the latter rains, and a surplus of the Colorado 
beetle, — the hay only falling off a single ton from that of last 
year; the potato crop, although less in bushels, is greater in 
value ; the milk has increased nearly ten tons, and the crop 
of roots exceeds that of last year more than 1,500 bushels. 

The products of the farm for the current year exceed the 
sum of $17,000; while the expenses incurred in carrying 
it on, including the purchase of grain, fertilizers, live-stock, 
etc., will not exceed the sum of $6,500. 

After deducting from the remainder the value of the hay, 
roots, and manure, reserved for carrying the stock through 
the winter, and growing the crops another season, amounting 
to $7,500, a margin of more than $,3000 will then be left for 
contingencies. 



16 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

The affairs of the institution are prosperous, the health of 
the inmates good, the schools under strict discipline, the 
teachers interested in their work, and the officers, while pro- 
fessedly loyal to nay interests, — which I think is generally the 
case, with very few exceptions, — are all, so far as in them is, 
making an effort to discharge their duties, and ostensibly 
working for the interests of the Commonwealth. 

HORACE P. WAKEFIELD. 

Monson, October 1, 1876. 



1876.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



17 



DETAILED ACCOUNT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES. 



Beans and pease, 281 bushels, . 

Books, newspapers, postage and stationery, 

Chaplain, services of, 

Clothing and dry-goods, 

Coal, 550 tons, . 

Coffee and tea, 3,519 lbs., . 

Concrete walk, . 

Corn and oats, 1,380 bushels, 

Crockery and glassware, . 

Feed and meal, . 

Fertilizers and plaster paris, 

Fish (salt and fresh), 

Flour, 949 bbls., 

Furniture, beds and bedding, 

Gasoline, 2,332 gallons, 

Groceries, . 

Hardware, . 

Improvements, 

Inspectors, expenses of, 

Inventory, . 

Labor, 

Live-stock, . 

Lumber, 

Meats, 26,470 lbs., 

Medicines and medical 

Miscellaneous, 

Molasses and sugar, 2. 

Painting, . 

Pasturage, . 

Repairs, 

Rice, 622 lbs., 

Salaries, 

Shoes, leather and repairs, 

Soap and stock, 

Smithwork and stock, 

Straw and hay, 31 tons, 

Transportation of freight and passengers, 



assistance 



211 gallons, 5,220 lbs., 



$464 


68 


297 


86 


250 


00 


5,277 


29 


3,856 


43 


634 


22 


110 


00 


1,015 


28 


195 


20 


604 83 


273 


45 


660 


84 


6,197 


65 


314 


20 


440 


25 


772 


88 


440 


05 


857 


20 


513 


75 


100 


00 


1,460 


50 


180 


00 


182 


61 


1,646 


09 


308 


65 


486 


95 


1,536 


64 


439 


75 


125 


00 


1,034 


42 


225 


04 


12,268 


41 


1,707 04 


216 


70 


176 


18 


343 


36 


967 


23 


$46,580 63 



18 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



PRODUCTS OF THE FARM. 



141f tons 


English hay. 


35 ' tons green corn-fodder 


37 " 


rowen. 


3,774 pounds winter squashes. 


H " 


oats. 


1,651 " summer squashes 


H " 


dry corn-fodder. 


2,500 " watermelons. 


116 " 


milk. 


2,315 " muskmelons. 


2,394 heads 


of cabbage. 


600 " rhubarb. 


1,800 bushels mangolds. 


1 bushel currants. 


600 


( 


carrots. 


96 boxes strawberries. 


1,250 


u 


English turnips. 


7 bushels blackberries. 


600 


i 


ruta-bagas. 


10,779 pounds pork. 


705 


i 


beets. 


1,378 " beef. 


76 


i 


onions. 


548 " veal. 


1,164 


a 


potatoes. 


44 " lamb. 


37 


i 


cucumbers. 


113 " mutton. 


61 


i 


tomatoes. 


85 " calfskins. 


86 < 


i 


sweet-corn ears. 


6 sheep's pelts. 


75 baskets corn ears. 


129 pounds wool. 


13 bushels beans in pods. 


60 cords wood. 


27* "' 


pease in pods. 


360 " manure.- 


2 


dry shell-beans. 


3,184 feet lumber. 


1,235 


apples. 


200 tons ice. 


3 " 


pears. 


62 pigs. 


1 " 


quinces. 


16 lambs. 


3,000 poi 


md 


s butter, manuf. of. 


39 calves. 



1876.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 19 



PRINCIPAL'S REPORT. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen : — There have been 687 different children in 
the school during the year ending September 30, 1876. 
Two hundred and thirty-eight have been placed out in families 
by the Visiting Agent, or discharged by the Board of State 
Charities. Twelve have died and six have eloped, leaving in 
school at this date, 431 pupils, of whom 322 are boys and, 
109 are girls. 

The largest number attending school at any one time was 
440. The smallest number was 264. Average attendance 
for the year, 382. 

Of the children attending school at this date, 31 are over 
fifteen years of age, 32 are under Ave, and 368 are between 
Ave and fifteen. The average age is about ten years. 

In the month of January, there were more children in the 
institution than could be comfortably accommodated in seven 
school-rooms ; it was therefore necessary to fit up another, 
which was accordingly done, and a school of about forty boys 
organized. 

This was continued until the close of the spring term, 
when, as our numbers were considerably reduced, it was 
closed, and the teacher dismissed. 

The method of grading and classifying the school has not 
varied much from that of last year. Although most of the 
older scholars have left, and their places been filled by others, 
the character of the school is unchanged, and the standard 
of scholarship is as high or higher than that of former terms. 

All of the teachers employed at the time of my last report 
have remained with us through the year, and are still on 
duty. The children have made commendable progress in 



20 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSOK [Oct.76. 

their studies, and are improving in conduct and manners. 
Punishments are not frequent or severe, while a general feel- 
ing of contentment prevails among the children throughout 
the institution. 

The Sabbath school is conducted as heretofore, the teach- 
ers taking charge of the exercises in their respective school- 
rooms. Sabbath-school concerts are held twice in each term, 
the work of preparation being chiefly performed by the teach- 
ers. 

The music is in charge of the teacher of No. 6, who prac- 
tises the children one hour in singing daily. 

We are well supplied with books and everything neces- 
sary to successfully conduct this department. 

In conclusion, I desire to thank you for the very kind and 
courteous treatment I have received from you during the 
year. 

Very respectfully, 

J. C. TIBBETTS, 

Principal, 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 25. 



TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 



THE INSPECTORS 



STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL 



MONSON, 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING 



September 3 0, 1877; 



EEPOET OF THE ADVISOEY BOAED. 



BOSTON: 

RAND, AVERT, & CO., PRINTERS TO THE COMMONWEALTH, 

117 Franklin Stbeet. 

1878. 



(Eommontoealtl) of Jttasscutjuecita. 



INSPECTORS' REPORT. 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Council. 

The Inspectors of the State Primary School respectfully 
present their Twenty-Fourth Annual Report, or fifth of the 
full years of the School. 

We present the following tables : — 



Number of persons in the institution, — ■ 



October 
u 

tc 

u 
tt 
u 



, 1872 
, 1873 
, 1874 
, 1875 
, 1876 
, 1877 



398 
453 
493 
512 
546 
525 



Average number of persons supported in the institution, 



the year ending 


October 1, 1872 


u u a 


" 1, 1873 


a a u 


" 1, 1874 


t.t a a 


1, 1875 


U it u 


1, 1876 


11 u u 


" 1, 1877 



431 
424 
481 
496 
515 
535 



Number of children sent to the institution by the courts, — 



For the }^ear ending October 1, 1873 
" " " " 1, 1874 

44 44 " " 1, 1875 

« u u u 1? 1876 

u _ u ^ u 1? 1877 



71 
61 
33 
54 

48 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Number of children placed out in families " on trial," 



For the year ending October 1, 1873 

" " " 1, 1874 

" " " « 1, 1875 

" " " " 1, 1876 

" " " " 1, 1877 



138 
125 
152 
142 
127 



Number of children returned from places, 



r the year 


ending 


October 1, 1873 


41 


cc cc 


it 


a 


1, 1874 


45 


cc cc 


cc 


cc 


1, 1875 


52 


cc cc 


CC 


(t 


1, 1876 


39 


cc cc 


(( 


u 


1, 1877 


39 



Number of deaths in the institution, — 

For the year ending October 1, 1873 
cc cc cc u 1? 1874 

" " " " 1, 1875 

cc cc cc cc 1? 1876 

cc cc cc cc 1? 1877 



6 
18 
23 
32 
14 



It will be noticed by these tables that the number sup- 
ported in the institution has unfortunately been increasing 
from year to year for several years, until we have an accumu- 
lation far in excess of what should be for the highest interest 
of the institution and the good of the Commonwealth. 

The State Primary School undertakes the maintenance of 
the children received therein, and to give them moral and 
intellectual training in view of assuring them ultimate con- 
ditions of self-support, and honest and useful citizenship. It 
assumes thus much for the general protection of society as 
well as from convictions of duty, personally, to these chil- 
dren. It is well sometimes to pause and inquire if the ten- 
dencies and ends obtained, both in degree and character or 
quantity and quality, are commensurate with the forces 
applied and the expenditures incurred. In other words, are 
the results satisfactory ? 

Business men take annual or semi-annual invoices, and 
bring their business to the severe test of figures ; but public 
charities are less stringent in conduct. They are rarely con- 



1877.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 5 

ducted on strict, sound business principles ; but there is no 
valid reason why they should not be. It is believed, if they 
were, the results in many cases might be doubled. 

Their conduct, habits, methods, reasoning, and practices 
are diffusive, aimless, h} r pothetical, speculative, generalizing, 
and experimental. This is mainly due to the abnormal 
organization of our public institutions. 

They become chronic and correspondingly powerless, — an 
outside show, with internal weakness, in too many instances. 
Simplicity, naturalness, and individuality of composition and 
action are primary elements of power, always in force and 
easy of adaptation. 

Freedom of expression is indispensable to any kind of 
growth or life. Repression is death, or dying. Now, there 
are upwards of 500 connected with the Primary School, 
mainly children and youth of active forces and impressible 
natures. Their stay in the institution averages about three 
years ; several of them have been inmates four, five, six, and 
so on, years. The government of all must necessarily be the 
same. This may do during school-hours ; but to live and 
have their being thus in the mass, week in and week out, 
day and night, play-hours, meal- time, and everywhere, and 
for years, and what may we expect as the results ? 

Every motion and action must of course be regulated with 
mechanical accuracy to correspond with each other. No free, 
natural expressions or action is consistent, or possible. Re- 
pression, assimilation, and surrender of all the attributes of 
nature, is the status. Youthful buoyancy, naturalness, and 
the juicy period of life, — the opportunity in which to 
stretch and grow, the susceptibility to educational direction 
towards substantial development, — are to a greater or less 
extent lost ; and the supervention of twisted, premature old 
age, and the barnacles of institutional impress, are the legiti- 
mate inheritance of the State. Let an artist photograph in 
groups the inmates of our large institutions, and a singular 
homogeneity of expression would be remarked, both sug- 
gestive and instructive. Character developed in all of its 
periods of growth and in all of its attributes is the only 
guarantee of future success and stability in human beings. 
The work of the Primary School should be, in brief, to start 
the foundation of character, furnish the ideas, plans, esti- 



6 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

mates and stimulus ; and not to build character. This it 
cannot do if it would, no more than a hospital for the 
sick can furnish' the requisites for healthy physical de- 
velopment. A change is necessitated before permanent 
convalescence ensues, either in body or mind. Character 
should be the paramount end sought. It should be in- 
scribed on the flags of the school ; on its walls, doors, and 
everywhere, until it left its impress ineffaceably on every 
soul that comes under the shadow of its enclosures. But 
what is character, analyzed ? 

1. Habits of, and love for, daily systematic industry. 

2. Freedom of lawful action under personal convictions. 

3. Self-knowledge. 

4. Individuality. 

5. Naturalness. 

6. Common sense. 

7. Personal self-reliance. 

8. Personal responsibility. 

9. Self-esteem. 

10. Cleanliness. 

11. Carefulness in handling tools, household wares, and 
property generally. 

12. Frugality. 

13. Promptness, punctuality, and energy. 

14. Courage. 

15. Obedience to authority of its kind. 

16. The higher qualities of course are to have their appro- 
priate place, — as virtue, reverence, veneration, truthfulness, 
honesty, sincerity, principle, justice, mercy, forgiveness, and 
benevolence. 

It is true, all that pertains to character can be taught in 
the mass ; but so much of it comes from habit and exercise 
in the little, simple, common-seuse details of normal condi- 
tions, that little can be practically realized in this direction 
while in a state of conglomeration. Largely our education 
comes from experience ; witnessing and feeling the effects 
of what we do. The opportunity in the mass for shifting 
responsibility is generally improved. 

Industry and rewards are conservators of character. In- 
ducements to industry in the form of mutual interests and 
rewards should be direct and tangible. Attrition in indi- 



1877.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 7 

vidual interest in diverse conditions is both the cement and 
polisher of character. This attrition in an institution causes 
friction, suppressed irritation, and ultimate explosion. The 
habit and love for industry is formed usually before the age 
of twelve years. The eye, the fingers, and muscles gener- 
ally, must be educated early, if ever, to any degree of perfec- 
tion. Also that of volition in harmony with the infinitely 
varying functions of the body, and which requires constant 
practice in the common things of every day-life. Not as 
imitators, but as intelligent, independent and responsible 
beings. Nor wholly in obedience to another's will, nor by 
force of habit like unto a machine, but upon their own cal- 
culation, ideas, and convictions, under the guidance of truth 
and instruction. The effect of institutions on their inmates 
is quickening to all the faculties of body and mind, for a 
certain definite period, varying somewhat from tempera- 
ment, age, &c, when all the benefits they are capable of 
imparting are attained. The institution has then expended 
all its powers for good upon them. 

A longer detention, after this period arrives, is sure to be 
followed by a relapse into a chronic state, which is either of 
slow cure, or in which the vicious qualities become intensified, 
or the element of self-respect and self-reliance is hopelessly 
lost, when there is but a step left between them and the 
almshouse or workhouse. We firmly believe that the best 
good of those of the age of eight to fifteen years, as a rule, 
demands they should be removed from the school in one year, 
or less, from the time of their admission. Many should go 
sooner. Too long a stay (as has been already said or im- 
plied) ends in positive injury to the child in nine cases out 
of ten. The stimulating effect, so powerfully produced in so 
large a gathering, is sure to be followed in a given time, and 
often quickly, with re-action to the opposite and often hope- 
less extreme. The process is to fit the ground, sow, grow, 
or cultivate and ripen. The soil can only be partially pre- 
pared, and the sowing begun ; and the rest must be the 
work of elsewhere ; neither of which can be done out of time 
and season. 

The merchant aims to clean out his old stock annually, to 
save himself from bankruptcy in carrying dead stock. 



8 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

The same is applicable to institutional management. But 
how can it be made practical ? 

1. We must not conclude that all these children would be 
lost, or grow up criminals or paupers, if left outside to take 
their chance ; nor any considerable number of them. Nor 
should we conclude that every child saved is to be attributed 
to the institution. There is an irresistible saving power in 
Divine Providence over all, in the open field of the world 
and society. Neither should we conclude that because a 
child is bad in one place, he will be so in another, and vice 
versa. Nor that because he is bad, his condition will be 
espcially bettered by confinement, or society better served. 

2. Make the matter of placing children into families lib- 
eral. 

3. Let the institution have the authority and responsibility 
of placing children into families, and thus be direct, simple, 
and expeditious. 

A very considerable number of children, discreetly selected, 
could easily be disposed of into country homes for less 
expense than the cost of their support in the institution, 
with chances of adoption or permanent homes, when the 
State would be relieved of future expense on their account. 
A poor home in a family is better than to be an inmate in 
the best managed institution in the world. The system of 
county care would be far preferable to the present, in that it 
would bring these children nearer the people in sympathy and 
responsibility. There would then be less expense in their 
general supervision, and they would not be so cumbersome in 
numbers as to embarrass efficient and economical management, 
and good results would increase. Of course the state author- 
ities could have the general supervision of them to insure their 
success. At all events these children should be scattered. It 
is both cruel and fruitful of pauperism to herd them together in 
such large numbers, and retain them year after year. Appli- 
cants prefer those whose stay in the school is short ; those 
longest retained for any cause are less likely to do well. 
Most children feel that some kind of disgrace attaches to 
them in an institution, no matter what name it assumes. 
After a while they level down to it, and become fond of its life, 
and prefer it to outside life. Therefore we firmly believe 
that if parents or friends can not and will not provide decent 



1877.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 9 

homes for them at the expiration of one year or less, as the 
case may be, homes or boarding-out places should be prompt- 
ly furnished them by the authorities that be. This sardine 
life breeds every thing that is bad, morally and physically, 
however much diligence may be exercised in their care, or 
however perfect their management may be. We cannot do 
violence to natural laws with impunity, nor do evil that good 
may come. We willingly believe, and cheerfully express it, 
that the Primary School is doing all it possibly can in many 
good ways to counteract these natural or incidental evils, and 
promote the best welfare of the children and the interest of 
the State. It is simply the system and its effects that we 
complain of. It is bad for our civilization and domain. It 
may do for chronic government, but not ours. 

Industrial employment and amusements in an institution 
of this kind are of special interest. In their practical adoption 
and maintenance, we confess they are attended with diffi- 
culties. That all should be taught and made to perform 
some kind of labor suited to their age, is a self-evident duty 
and necessity. No system of education or reform in an 
institution will really be successful without it. 

How to adjust it relatively to other interests ; what pro- 
portion of time should be appropriated to it ; what kind of 
employment is best suited to children ; how far the teaching 
of trades and realizing of profits should be objects ; how 
far the products of labor should be mutually shared ; and 
what is the true theory and purpose of labor in institutions, — 
are subjects worthy of serious consideration. Outside of the 
school there are several hours, daily, during which, if these 
children are unemployed, and left to amuse themselves, they 
will inevitably form habits of both physical and mental va- 
grancy ; and these habits will be carried into the school, thus 
weakening its efficiency and lessening its benefits. During 
a few months in the year a number of the boys are profitably 
employed a portion of time upon the farm, others at the 
barn, others in putting the grounds and interior of the house 
in order. The girls are employed in sewing. All these are 
well. Still there is a considerable number of a certain class 
who require substantial, systematic labor, not so much in 
view of pecuniary profit as in the idea of education. The 
idea is prevalent that labor not directly remunerative and 

2 



10 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

which is not expected to be permanently followed as a trade 
and means of future livelihood, is time and effort thrown 
away. This is often a disastrous delusion. With this 
idea, whatever is engaged in for the time-being is void of 
interest, thus impoverishing the relish for industry and the 
sources of true economy. 

This will doubtless explain one cause of so many personal 
failures and tramps under the vicissitudes of American life. 
They compass life with one idea. It is this, or nothing, and 
poor at that. To them every thing is out of joint, in times of 
reverse or misfortune, but themselves. We believe manual 
labor — education — is coequal in importance, in the fitting of 
these children for life's work, to their school education, and 
the question of immediate financial profitableness should 
no more influence the decision in the one than in the other. 
Its dignity should be practically taught. Its value in its 
influence upon health and growth. Its value in its influence 
upon self-respect. Its value in quickening the faculties of 
both body and mind. Its influence in promoting contentment, 
and in its stimulus to the appetite and relish for the school- 
work. 

So far as there may be any direct profit, it should be mutu- 
ally shared. Every one craves something as a result or re- 
ward of industry, — something they call their own, even if it 
is a top or a pocket-knife.- This is the natural stimulus to 
industry. But whatever differences of opinion may exist, 
it is certain that no opportunity should be allowed to pass 
without gaining experience, and adding a crumb here and a 
crumb there to our capital and stock in trade for future uses. 
" Gather up the fragments," is the divine injunction, full of 
wisdom and wealth, " that nothing be lost." Jewels of expe- 
rience and knowledge, though so commonly unobserved, lie all 
along and beside our pathway, especially in the early fittings 
and struggles of life ; and none can well be spared in enriching 
our natural resources and in perfecting true and independent 
manhood. 

Amusements are no less important. They are the leaven 
of labor of every kind. They constitute the poetry of 
humanity. They should have a distinct and absolute place, 
and be dealt out wisely in time, quantity, and quality. They 
can be made a stimulus to the whole machinery of the insti- 



1877.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 11 

tution and do much to lessen the scars of a routine and con- 
gregated condition of life. 

On the 1st of January last, the Rev. J. H. Bradford, of 
Middletown, Conn., succeeded to the superintendency of the 
school, since which time he has corrected many defects, and 
made many needed improvements in its management. 

And, with means and time, we hope to see it all it should be. 
Mr. Bradford is also the Chaplain. The report of the Super- 
intendent, which accompanies our own, gives statistical and 
other information relative to the expenses of the mainten- 
ance and management of the institution ; the children, their 
condition and wants ; the improvements in and about the 
buildings and grounds, condition of the farm, and much other 
information, and many suggestions of value. Dr. William 
Holbrook, of Palmer, was appointed Physician of the school 
on the 1st of March. We commend his report, herewith 
enclosed. He recommends better hospital accommodations, 
in which we most cordially concur and fully indorse. The 
decrease in the number of deaths the past year over the pre- 
vious one is more than 100 per cent, which has been very 
gratifying. 

Mr. Julius C. Tibbetts has continued with us another year 
as principal of the school as well as Assistant Superintendent. 
We regard him an excellent officer, efficient and faithful. 
With this you will find his report of the several schools, and 
comments thereon. We call your attention especially to 
what he says as to the changed character of the schools. 
We have contended for years that the best children should 
not be retained here when they might be placed out, and we 
quote from our report of 1875 upon this subject : — 

" We are not of those who believe that it is best to retain 
the best children here for the sake of the influence they might 
have upon the more evil-disposed, for in due time the result 
might be the reverse of this, and the good become contami- 
nated; nor would we consider it just to the good children to 
be thus retained." 

We are now happy to be able to state, that no child is 
retained here because he is good, when there is a place 
for him. 

We also present the reports of the Farmer and Gardener, 
giving the products of the farm and gardens. 



12 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



The institution is running smoothly, the best of feeling 
prevailing between all connected with it, from the highest 
to the lowest. The moral and religious influences of the 
school are good ; " love, and not fear," is the watchword. 
The officers and teachers have generally been faithful and 
competent. 



Officers, Assistants, and their Salaries. 
Rev. James H. Bradford, Superintendent and Chaplain $1,800 00 



Julius C. Tibbetts, Ass't Superintendent and Pi 
John B. Chapman, Clerk and Steward 
Sumner A. Andrews, Supervisor 

E. A. Nash, Baker . 
Henry A. Bailey, Cook 
W. F. Floyd, Watchman . 
J. Michael Sisk, Driver 
Edw. Goods, Shoemaker . 
Alexander Primrose, Engineer . 
Mark Bentley, Fireman 
William Holbrook, Physician 
Mrs. Charlotte A. St. John, Girls' Nurse 
James C. Lally, Boys' Nurse 
Mrs. J. C. Tibbetts, Matron 
Mrs. Susan C. Farrington, Assistant Matron 
Mrs. R. M. Pinkney, Assistant Matron 
Mrs. Sumner A. Andrews, Seamstress 
Miss Emily A. Taylor, Seamstress 
Mrs. M. A. Baile}-, Laundress . 
Miss Mary E. Duncan, Teacher 
Miss M. Lina Gooclell, Teacher 
Mrs. Harriett e E. Darte, Teacher 
Miss Eugenia M. Fullington, Teacher 
Mrs. Amelia P. Warner, Teacher 
Miss Laura A. Belding, Teacher 
Miss Clara S. Clark. Teacher 
Mrs. F. B. Shepard. Teacher 
Mrs. A. L. Bo wen, Cook . 
Miss Annie McGovran, Girls' Supervisor 

F. B. Shepard, in charge of work-boys 
R. F. Bishop. Gardener 
George H. Fisherdick, Farmer . 
George W. Keyes, Teamster 
Stephen J. Baker, Assistant Farmer . 



incipal 



1,000 00 
480 00 
500 00 
600 00 
420 00 
300 00 
300 00 
480 00 
800 00 
300 00 
400 00 
250 00 
150 00 
300 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
192 00 
120 00 
350 00 
480 00 
600 00 
360 00 
300 00 



1877.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



13 



G-eorge H. Stone, Assistant Farmer 
Reuben S. Walls, Assistant Farmer 
Dennis Farrell, Assistant Farmer 
Cornelius Murphy, Laborer 
William Kelly, Laborer 
Eugene Holmes, Laborer . 
Jonathan Keefe, Blacksmith 
George E. Davis, Carpenter, " per day 



$300 00 

300 00 

240 00 

120 00 

60 00 

60 00 

240 00 

2 75 



Recapitulation Inventory, Sept. 29, 1877. 

[Taken "by "William H. H. Wooster, of Springfield, and David E. Taylor, of Chicopee.] 

Real Estate. 

Land $22,665 43 

Buildings . . . . . 92,105 00 



Personal. 




<G>XJ.-±,« «v <±o 


Live-stock 


$6,830 00 




Carriages and agricultural implements 


3,000 55 




Produce of farm on hand 


8,337 30 




Machinery and mechanical fixtures 


9,372 28 




Beds and bedding, inmates' department 


5,980 18 




Other furniture, inmates' department 


3,707 08 




Personal property, sup't's department 


5,337 33 




Clothing, boots and shoes 


5,988 10 




Dry goods . 


948 19 




Provisions and groceries 


1,611 12 




Drugs and medicine 


400 00 




Fuel 


3,186 00 




Library and school-books 


415 50 




Heating, gas and water 


17,500 00 




Miscellaneous .... 


• 648 97 


73^262 60 








$188,033 03 



(Signed) 



LEWIS N. GILBERT, 

S. D. BROOKS, 

E. V. B. HOLCOMB, 



State Primary School, Monson, Oct. 1, 1877. 



Inspectors. 



14 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Inspectors of the Massachusetts State Primary School. 

Gentlemen, — It becomes my duty to present to you the 
condition, history, and wants of this institution. The his- 
tory will be confined to nine months, ending Sept. 30, 
during which time I have had charge. 

My duties commenced Jan. 1, on about 48 hours' no- 
tice. Several of the important positions in the school were 
vacated then, but no serious embarrassment was occasioned 
thereby. Very little could be done at that time of year, 
except to become acquainted with the details of the school. 

The cost of supporting the institution the previous year, 
according to the report, had been $46,580.63 ; and in view of 
needed improvements, $14,000 additional was asked for. 
The appropriation this year for current expenses was $1,000 
less than last year ($44,000) ; and $5,000 additional was 
voted, — " three thousand for necessary clothing and bed- 
ding for the inmates of said school," and " two thousand 
dollars for necessary repairs and alterations on the buildings 
and premises." 

The average number of persons supported in the institu- 
tion for the year ending Sept. 30, 1876, was 515 ; and the 
average number for the last year has been 535. 

The problem presented me on that mid-winter day when I 
entered upon my duties was : To improve the institution in 
all its apparent condition, to feed and clothe the inmates prop- 
erly, support 20 persons more than last year, and do it on 
$1,000 less, with $5,000 to make all needed improvements. 

The special appropriation has been applied to its legitimate 
uses, as follows : — 

Beds and freight $576 35 

Dry goods 289 96 

Cloth for boys 364 44 

Boys' suits . . 1,769 25 

$3,000 00 



1877.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



15 



Paint 

Painters 

Lumber 

Brick 

Stone 

Mason work 

Carpenter's work 

Blacksmithing 

Concrete walk 



Balance unexpended 



$261 99 


167 


00 


194 


17 


70 


00 


19 


30 


82 


00 


154 


00 


39 


58 


536 


36 


£1,524 


40 


475 


60 



The remainder of this fund we hope to use for stand-pipes 
to protect us against fire. 



Whole number persons in institution, Oct. 1, 



1876 










546 


In support and temporary custody 




115 


In State Primary School proper . 






Total admissions during year ending Sept. 30 






1877 . . 






Transferred from support and temporary 




custody 




229 


Boys . 








150 




Girls . 








79 




Returned from places . 










39 


Boys . 








27 




Girls . 








. 12 




Truants 










9 


. Returned after elopement 










3 


Total number in State Primary School during 


• 




year 






Number discharges during year ending Sept. 30 






1877 






Placed on trial . . . 




121 


Boys ....... 


88 




Girls 


33 




Discharged by Board of State Charities 




130 


Boys ....... 


72 




Girls . 








58 





431 



280 



711 



277 



16 
6 



327 
107 



16 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Eloped ...... 

Died 

Boys 4 

Girls 2 

Transferred to Westborough Reform School . 2 

Truants, expiration of sentence ... 2 

Number remaining Oct. 1, 1877 . . . 434 

Boys 

Girls ....... 

Number in support and temporary custody Oct. 

1,1876 ....... 115 

Number admissions during year ending Sept. 30, 

1877 ....... 315 

Transferred from State Almshouse . . . 242 

Men . . . 6 

Women 24 

Boys 135 

Girls 77 

Transferred from Primary School . . 19 

Boys ....... 14 

Girls 5 

Sent by court .... . . 48 

Boys 37 

Girls . . . . . . . 11 

Births 6 

Boys 2 

Girls 4 

Whole number during year 

Number discharges during year ending Sept. 30, 
1877 

Transferred to State Primary School . . 229 

Boys 150 

Girls 79 

Discharged by Board of State Charities . 87 

Men . 16 

Women . . . . .41 

Boys 17 

Girls . . . . . . .13 

Placed with families . . . . . 6 

Boys ....... 3 

Girls 3 



430 



339 



1877.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

Died 8 

Man 1 

Boy 1 

Girls ....... 6 

Eloped ....... 9 

Men . . . . . .2 

Women ...... 5 

Boys 2 

Whole number remaining Oct. 1, 1877 . . 91 

In support 89 

Men . . . . . . .13 

Women 29 

Boys 27 

Girls 20 

In temporary custody, boys ... 2 

Whole number in institution Oct, 1,1877. . 525 

In State Primary School proper . . . 434 

In support . . . .... 89 

In temporary custody ..... 2 

Among other things done to improve the school, may be 
mentioned the following : — 

A coal-shed, 90 feet long, has been, built on our land ad- 
joining the New London Northern Railroad, in which is 
stored 561 tons of coal. A good road constructed from it to 
the engine-room by grading and building culverts. A new 
milk-room, built detached, near the old one, with apparatus 
for keeping milk in deep cans. It has proved a decided 
success, as all milk is kept pure and sweet. 

The main buildings have been improved with one and two 
coats of paint, also the girls' and boys' playhouses and the 
men's shop. The fences and walls, and nearly the entire in- 
side of the main building, from cellar to attic, including both, 
have been whitewashed. The dining-room, kitchen, bakery, 
nursery, sewing-rooms, halls, playhouses, and many other 
parts of the house, have been repainted. Every iron bedstead 
in the establishment has received needed blacksmi thing and 
a coat of paint. Fifty woven wire beds, with iron bedsteads, 
have been placed in the hospital ; eighteen sink-drains have 
been trapped. The boys' cellar has been enlarged by taking 
in 616 square feet of floor, putting in additional towel-hooks, 

3 



18 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MOINTSON. [Oct. 

and 24 feet in length of wash-sinks, with galvanized iron lin- 
ing. A new refrigerator built under the dining-room. A 
room partitioned off for all plastering and whitewashing ma- 
terial. A new stove and hot-water tank put into the meat- 
cellar for summer cooking. The old milk-cellar prepared for 
meat. The large vegetable cellar at the upper barn thor- 
oughly cleansed and whitewashed. The cow-stable doubly 
whitewashed, and a milk-room built adjoining. The girls' 
playhouse sheathed, floored, painted, and lime-washed, and 
provided with new seats. The boys' playhouse ventilated, 
sheathed, painted, and lime-washed, provided with new seats 
towel-hooks to the number of 303, and a galvanized iron-lined 
wash-sink to run the entire length of the west end of the 
building. The engine, boiler, and repair rooms painted and 
whitewashed; a temporary forge erected for blacksmith work; 
besides general repairs of windows, doors, gates, fences, &c, 
wherever needed. My endeavor has been to put the estab- 
lishment in good order, as far as I was able, and keep it so. 
The infant school was changed from the first to the second 
floor, next the room where the children eat and sleep, — a 
room sunny and pleasant. The attics have been cleared of 
old iron, lead, or whatever they contained, and cleaned ; 
plank floor laid in the sheds for storage. A store-room 
opened next the office, where supplies are gathered and 
issued systematically. Almost an entire new set of straw 
bed-ticks have been made, and some mattresses, also sheets, 
pillow-slips, and blankets obtained ; also 500 new uniform 
suits for the boys, and a complete outfit for the girls and 
small children. Every child coming to the institution has 
been clothed anew, and every one departing from it, except 
the elopers. Ninety-five dozen hats for boys, forty dozen for 
the girls and young children, have covered their heads. 

On the farm, 186 tons of hay and rowen, and eight tons of 
rye and straw, five of oat straw, and a great abundance of 
vegetables necessary for feeding the inmates and stock have 
been raised, including three acres of mangolds, four acres of 
turnips, two of carrots, three of corn, eight of potatoes, two 
of cabbages, beets and onions, besides strawberries, parsnips, 
melons, squashes, sweet and pop corn, asparagus, celery, &c. 
Good care has been taken of the stock, poor or unprofitable 
animals disposed of, and young stock and pigs raised. The 



1877.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

children have been employed at housework and sewing, and 
as many as possible daily on the farm and gardens, repair- 
ing roads and all work necessary to keep the premises in good 
order, and in the cultivation of flowers. We finished caning 
3,800 chairs found on hand. The children have been as 
well fed as the means at our command would allow. The 
amount of provisions varies somewhat as the season changes; 
but for one week it is about as follows : Flour 20 barrels, 
beef 400 pounds, pork 100 pounds, fish 150 pounds, cornmeal 
75 pounds, hulled corn 115 quarts, beans 3J bushels, pease 
1J- bushels, beets two barrels, cabbages five barrels, tomatoes 
five barrels, rice 75 pounds, coffee 90 pounds, tea six pounds, 
sugar 20 pounds, molasses 30 gallons, milk 4,500 pounds . A 
part of the year they have had a liberal supply of butter 
once in ten days. The meat is mostly obtained fresh from 
Boston. The flour is strong and sweet. We hope in future 
to introduce more variety, such as hominy, oatmeal, cracked 
wheat, rye bread, mush and milk, &c. We think the insti- 
tution should keep 75 cows instead of 50, or enough to give 
every child one good meal of milk instead of coffee. This 
can only be accomplished by soiling our cattle, as our pas- 
turage is far too limited for the stock we now have. We 
have given our pigs several acres of area in which to exer-. 
cise and feed, with access at all times to fresh water. 

The hospital has had 606 patients and 14 deaths during- 
the year, and it represents all the sickness. It sadly needs 
enlarging and improving. We have been threatened with 
whooping-cough and diphtheria, which have raged near us, and; 
should have poor chance for isolation in case of either. 

The schools have been kept up as in years past, with con- 
siderable general instruction in chapel. I heartily indorse the 
suggestions of the Assistant Superintendent, on the subject of 
a higher standard of school furniture, maps and charts, fresh 
air and sunlight. Few district schools in the Commonwealth 
are so poorly off in these respects as we. 

The behavior of the children has been very good, consid-. 
ering the large number and the various classes represented ; 
the discipline as firm as is compatible with the good of the 
children. The officers have seemed to me desirous of the 
highest welfare of the scholars, and have labored with a good 
degree of harmony and efficiency. The expenses for the 



20 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

year, which is not our financial year, have been $47,493.77, 
exclusive of the special appropriation, an average of $88.77 
per year, or, $1.70 per week for each inmate ; $144.90 of sal- 
aries for October, November, and December, 1876, was not 
allowed by the Inspectors, which leaves the total, $47,348.87. 
The wants of the institution are very great, and in some 
directions very vital ; and first I would mention a supply of 
water. When I say that at times we have exhausted our 
water from both sources, and pumped the well so dry that no 
more could be obtained, I only faintly represent the truth. 
The sources of water about here are drying up ; and means 
should be found, without delay, to obtain a full supply for all 
purposes. We dread to think of the sacrifice of property 
and human life, if a fire should break out in these wooden 
buildings, containing so much inflammable material and so 
many young children, who would, between the hours of 8, p.m., 
and 5, A.M., have to be carried out in arms. We only hope 
that the kind Providence who has warded off that calamity 
for so many years, may protect us, and that we may speedily 
be better defended than now against this evil. On bringing 
this matter to the attention of His Excellency the Governor, 
and the Council, during their recent visit, the following 
order was subsequently issued by them : — 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Council Chamber, ) 

Boston, Sept. 26, 1877. J 

In consideration of the statements relative to water supply, set forth 
in a communication from the Superintendent and the Inspectors of the 
State Primary School at Monson, dated Sept. 25, 1877, and observation 
of the matter by the Governor and Council on the occasion of their recent 
visit to said institution, it is, Ordered, That said Superintendent and 
Inspectors be requested to make immediate provision for a better supply 
of water at said institution upon the plan described by them, or some 
other plan which shall be approved by a competent engineer, provided 
the cost of the work shall not exceed the sum of two thousand dollars. 

In Council, Sept. 26, 1877. 
Order adopted. 

HENRY J. COOLIDGE, 

Deputy Secretary. 

In accordance with the above order, excavations have 
been made for laying pipe, to pump water from the ice-pond 
to the storage reservoir, which has been enlarged, and is to 
be paved. 



1877.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 

Our next want is pure air. Turning the foul air of one 
room into another, to be breathed again, is not ventilation. 
We have hardly a room occupied by inmates properly 
ventilated. The air of the chapel when the children are in 
will not last an hour, and some of the crowded wards are 
nearly as bad. We know people do live marvellously in 
violation of the plain principles of their being; but we do 
not believe, in this enlightened age, in this State, such things 
should be allowed by those who have the care of the young. 
The fact is, this building, erected originally as an experiment, 
has never been adapted to its changed uses, from an alms- 
house for adults to a State Primary School for children. 
Cheerless schoolrooms, with furniture that would be tolerated 
in few district schools, entirely destitute of sunshine, are not 
the places to train boys and girls for lives of usefulness, vir- 
tue, and efficiency. I pray you do not think me severe. I 
only mention these facts because I am sure the Legislature 
of a State that spends millions for asylums for the insane 
will not withhold from sane children the few thousand dol- 
lars necessary to enable us to do our work with some pros- 
pect of success. 

Our next want is a chapel ; we have none. Not alone for 
religious purposes, but for all kinds of general exercises, 
lectures, entertainments, sabbath-school concerts, singing, 
&c. We want a room large enough to give each person a 
fair amount of space, and so that the speaker may be re 
moved from the necessity of being poisoned by foul air. 

I am very much disinclined to ask any one to teach sing- 
ing in the room where we now assemble about half our 
school. It must be borne in mind that these children, shut 
up for years behind this high fence, depend upon the gather- 
ings in chapel for that entertainment and pleasure which 
others get in their homes, schools, through the streets, on their 
farms, &c; and if they do not have some entertainment they 
will either be idiots or criminals. 

Under the chapel, above ground, should be a play and 
wash room. A cellar is no place to keep human beings three 
or four hours a day. 

Our next want is classification. This is impossible so long 
as the institution is used as an almshouse. We are like a 
meadow brook after a freshet. The accumulation of years 



22 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



is lodged here and there, destroying its beauty and useful- 
ness. 

Paupers, with whom the law says these children should not 
associate, have lingered here, or been sent to us, thwarting 
good influences, and everywhere a living example of what 
we are trying to train children not to be. 

Children are here, crippled in body and deformed in mind, 
whom nobody will take, — young children, babies, too young 
to receive instruction, born in almshouses, and being fitted 
to stay in them all their lives or go to some worse place. Re- 
formatory children are here too, nearly 100 in a year, to mingle 
freely with the innocent, — children guilty of all sorts of 
petty crimes, — to be treated in the same manner in everj^ re- 
spect as these whose only crime is that they are poor. The 
objections to mingling these children are very grave. The 
discipline necessary for the criminal class is too severe for the 
others. To shut a boy up behind a 12-foot fence, make him 
march in line with known thieves, eat and sleep with them — ■ 
how can he be impressed with the responsibilities of a virtu- 
ous and noble life ? The institution was not built for re- 
straint and punishment. Boys can escape with little diffi- 
culty. Court boys make others uneasy, compel a strict dis- 
cipline, and drag down the innocent to the level of vice and 
crime. There is perhaps no objection to these classes being 
under one superintendence, but they certainly should be clas- 
sified. Attention is invited to the following table : — 



of children 


who have been in the Inst. 


less than 1 year 


209 


u u 


a 


a a 44 


bet. 1 and 2 years 


77 


44 u 


u 


a a 44 


" 2 and 3 


44 


76 


a a . 


n 


44 u 4; 


" 3 and 4 


44 


45 


a 44 


44 


44 44 44 


" 4 and 5 


44 


25 


it a 


44 


44 44 44 


" 5 and 6 


44 


12 


a a 


a 


44 44 44 


" 6 and 7 


44 


19 


44 a 


u 


44 44 44 


" 7 and 8 


44 


7 


44 a 


44 


(i 44 44 


" 8 and 9 


44 


5 


it 44 


a 


44 44 44 


" 9 and 10 


44 


6 


44 a 


it 


44 44 44 


" 10 and 11 


44 


1 


44 u 


a 


44 44 44 


"11 and 12 


44 


1 



483 



1877.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23 

I am of the opinion that the institution should have power 
to place out its own children, and take care of them after 
they are out. The influence gained by years of contact and 
acquaintance is almost entirely lost by turning them over to 
new hands. There are a hundred children here to-day who 
could be more cheaply and better provided for in families; 
and while the law asks the inspectors, superintendent, and 
officers to look up places, it gives them, no power to put chil- 
dren in them, or control of them afterwards. The present 
system is so cumbersome that applicants are prevented from 
taking children ; hence they accumulate. Placing before a 
child the hope of release as a means of discipline is entirely 
lost, as we know nothing about it. They may be called for 
to-morrow, and they may stay here for years, as the tables 
show. When a man wants merchandise, he goes to a seller, 
examines, and obtains it. Why should not children be 
obtained from those who have the care of them ? The neces- 
sity of a revision of laws which have grown up in twenty years 
of experience is apparent to any one who attempts to study 
them. 

I have turned over to the Treasurer of the State the 
moneys that have come into my hands for sales, labor, &c, 
because it seems to be the custom, although I could find no 
law authorizing it. 

There are many other things which ought to be corrected 
in order to make this a first-class institution. Our privies 
are not calculated to teach modesty or cleanliness. We have 
sixteen cows tied in a dark underground stable. ^ We should 
be glad to cultivate a few flowers if we had a place to carry 
them over the winter. What better investment could be 
made for such a school than a green-house ! 

We need steady employment for the children in the win- 
ter; for it is one of the most necessary means to a true life, 
that a child should learn and love to work. 

In short, we are ready, just as soon as the means are fur- 
nished, to push this school into the front rank of all such 
schools in America. 

The problem is to make good men and women of these 
children. We only want the same means and influences that 
make good men and women of any other children and will 
then be responsible for the accomplishment of the work. The 



24 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct, 

same materials in body, mind, and soul exist here as elsewhere 
for making good citizens. The work is exceedingly hopeful, 
but far-reaching and eternal results hang upon the impres- 
sions of these few years. The moral condition of the school 
we consider of the most vital importance. Where the heart 
is not educated, little can be done of a permanent nature for 
the child. Every employe on the place should contribute 
something to this end. The standard of character, too, should 
be very high. The events which day by day pass under the 
eyes of a boy or girl contribute more to their settled ideas 
than a multitude of oral teachings. Promptness, industry, 
courtesy, old-fashioned virtues, should be required of all on 
this account. Our desire is to bring these imperishable souls 
into close contact with noble people, to show them standards 
of action that perhaps they have hitherto been unacquainted 
with. 

Under the moulding influences of such lives, these children 
cannot be satisfied to grow up idle or vicious. If they do not 
find here, what perhaps they have never seen elseAvhere, true 
nobleness, how can they be expected to become true them- 
selves ? Let us not expect miracles, but apply the same prin- 
ciples to these lives that are applied daily and hourly in all 
good families in this favored State, to train up their children 
in the way they should go, and experience has taught us to 
look for the same results. 

Herewith I submit a detailed account of the produce raised 
on the farm and gardens, together with tables showing the 
number and class of our inmates. I wish to acknowledge 
the uniform courtesy of all having official connection with 
me. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. H. BRADFORD, Superintendent, 



1877.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



25 



DETAILED ACCOUNT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES. 



Agricultural tools and seeds 

Beans and pease, 154 bushels 

Books, newspapers, postage, and stationery 

Boots, shoes, and leather . 

Brooms and brushes 

Chaplain, services of 

Carriages, robes, horses, &c. 

Clothing ..... 

Coal, 567 tons .... 

Corn and oats, 1,244 bushels . 

Crockery and glassware . 

Dry goods . . . 

Feed and meal, 31,734 pounds . 

Fish, 9,319 pounds . 

Furniture, beds, and bedding . 

Gasoline and oil, 3,999 gallons 

Groceries, light 

flour, 912 barrels 

molasses, 2,501 gallons 

sugar, 4,454 pounds 

coffee, 3,477 pounds 

tea, 644 pounds 

rice, 2,442 pounds 

Hardware 

Hats .... 

Hulled corn, milk, and oysters 

Improvements and repairs 

Inventory 

Inspectors 

Labor 

Lumber . 

Machines 

Medicine and medical attendance 

Amount carried forward . 

4 







$453 73 






321 37 






654 71 






1,416 62 






33 47 






115 00 






401 02 






1,307 91 






2,886 95 






823 85 






291 94 






2,504 09 






293 35 






406 70 






408 01 






993 82 


$936 U 




6,962 0( 


) 


1,001 8( 




500 8( 


) 


427 71 




224 3< 


) 


162 31 


L 




10 215 52 




IU , id i-O O id 




403 79 






235 20 






455 57 






1,835 58 






125 00 






480 00 






1,597 96 






545 34 






291 29 






906 84 




. $30,404 63 



26 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Amount brought forward . 


$30,404 63 


Meat, 27,055 pounds 


1,779 09 


Miscellaneous ....... 


305 32 


Painting and whitewashing .... 


75 76 


Plants, trees, and seeds ..... 


74 70 


Salaries . . . . ... 


12,487 73 


Smithwork and stock ..... 


306 67 


Soap and soap stock ..... 


279 37 


Straw, hay, and pasturage ... 


318 54 


Tin and wooden ware . . . 


149 08 


Transportation, — express, freight, and passenger 


1,066 98 


Watch boys . 


101 00 


Total expenditures . 


$47,348 87 



Receipts. 

Amount received from unexpended appro- 
priation of 1876, exclusive of September $10,802 76 
Cash received from appropriation, 1877 . 32,865 71 



Amount September schedule unpaid 



$43,668 47 
3,680 40 

$47,348 87 



Cash received for sales, 

January 1 
Paid State Treasurer 



and board of truants since 



$191 
191 



89 
89 



1877.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 



27 



PRODUCTS OF THE FARM. 



The following is a list of the products of the Farm this j^ear : 



Hay, tons . 
Rowen, tons 
Oats, mowed, tons 
Rye straw, tons . 
Corn fodder, tons 

" " green, tons 
Potatoes, bushels 
Mangolds, bushels 
Sugar beets, bushels 
Carrots, bushels . 
English turnips, bushels 
Corn, bushels 
Rye, bushels 



1391 
4-1 



7i 



27 

1,377 

1,600 

800 

500 

1,100 

235 

100 



Beef, lbs. 


7,698 


Veal, lbs. 


479 


Pork, lbs. 


9,293 


Mutton, lbs. . 


1,318 


Sheepskins 


27 


Calves, sold . 


20 


" raised. 


8 


Dairy skins 


7 


Pigs, raised . 


34 


Wool, lbs. 


. 110 


Wood, cut, cords 


50 


Lumber, cut, feet 


. 7,750 


Milk, tons 


10Q 9 3 7, 



GEORGE H. FISHERDICK, 

Farmer. 



28 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



GARDENER'S REPORT. 



To the Superintendent of the State Primary School. 

Sir, — At your request I submit the following Report. 

We have cultivated nine acres of land the past season, and 
have grown nearly all kinds of garden vegetables. The 
labor, with the exception of the team work, has been wholly 
performed with the assistance of the boys of the school. 
The crops have all been large and of excellent quality. 

In addition to the care of the vegetable gardens, considera- 
ble time and labor have been devoted to the care and improve- 
ment of the grounds. The covering of pounded granite in 
the court-yard has been removed, and the space converted 
into a fine lawn, embellished with flowers, thus rendering a 
spot which was unsightly, pleasing and attractive. Consid- 
erable attention has been paid to the cultivation of flowers 
about the grounds, giving them a more cheerful and homelike 
appearance. Several hundred pots of plants have been prop- 
agated, which are looking finely, and which we hope to carry 
through the winter for use next year. 

The accompan}dng schedule shows the amount of garden 
crops : — 

200 heads lettuce. 
225 bun. asparagus. 

90 qts. strawberries. 

45 " currants. 

28 bush, pease in pod. 

75 " beans in pod. 

10 " beans, shelled. 
8,589 heads cabbage. 
824 doz. sweet-corn. 

95 bush, ears dry sweet-corn. 

10 " Lima beans in pod. 
133 " onions. 
1,150 lbs. summer squash. 
10,365 " winter squash. 
175 bush, tomatoes. 

Respectfully submitted. 

R. F. BISHOP, Gardener. 

State Primary School, Oct. 1, 1877. 



561 


watermelons. 


465 


muskmelons. 


155 bush 


. sweet German turnips. 


300 " 


yellow stone turnips. 


150 " 


purple- top turnips. 


418 " 


blood-beets. 


20 " 


pop-corn in ear. 


1,200 


celery. 


3 tons 


corn-fodder. 


500 lbs. 


rhubarb. 


3 bush 


. pears. 


12 " 


apples. 


110 " 


potatoes. 


30 " 


cucumbers. 



1877.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 29 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen, — I have the pleasure of saying to you, that 
the institution has been free from disease of an epidemic na- 
ture during the past year. It has not been free, however, 
from the diseases usually found in institutions of this kind, 
where are gathered the poor children from all over the Com- 
monwealth, with inherited predispositions to consumption, 
scrofula, ophthalmia, and other kindred diseases which de- 
velop more rapidly in their different forms according to the 
number congregated together. There have been 14 deaths 
during the year ; one died within forty-eight hours after ad- 
mittance, of consumption ; was brought from Springfield, and 
the name not recorded, as she was not regularly admitted to 
the institution. 

Only six of the deaths belong properly to the hospital- 
record of the Primary School. Of these, three died of mem- 
braneous croup ; one each of paralysis, consumption, and 
cancer. 

Of those in support, one, thirty-eight years of age, was acci- 
dentally killed by the falling of a bank of earth upon him, 
while laboring on the farm ; two died of consumption ; two of 
marasmus ; one of meningitis ; one of congestion of lungs, and 
one of effusion on brain. 

The whole number admitted to the hospital during the 
year was 606 ; still remaining in the wards, 52. Many of 
these have been in several different times, from a recurrence 
of their disease. The largest number from ophthalmia. 

A large number have been sent to the hospital who do 
not legitimately belong to the Primary School, and there is 
not room for those whose right it is to have the room allotted 
to the sick and feeble of the school proper. 

If these are to remain, or the hospital to be filled by this 
class, I can but urge that more room be provided for the sick, 



30 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

and those needing treatment. I would most especially urge 
that a suitable place be provided for isolation of those hav- 
ing diseases of a contagious nature. The " sore eyes " should 
be by themselves ; diphtheria, small-pox, scarlet-fever, and 
other diseases, which we are liable to receive visits from at 
any time, could not be properly isolated in any building or 
ward in this whole establishment. 

I would also say, the water-closets under the present ar- 
rangement are not ventilated as they should be in the hospi- 
tal. Some have no ventilation whatever. 

During the year, new beds and bedsteads have been fur- 
nished for the comfort of the sick, and the walls renovated by 
a good coat of whitewash. I would ask for a continuance of 
improvements of the building, by having clapboards placed 
upon the outside, for comfort in the winter; and mottoes 
pictures, drawings, &c, hung inside for beauty, and to adorn 
the now bare and plain walls. 

All cases of sickness are treated at the hospital. 

The sanitary condition of the institution, at the present 
time, is good. 

I was appointed March 1, 1877, as Physician to the insti- 
tution. My relation to the officers in charge, Superintend- 
ent and Inspectors, have been pleasent. 

My nurses have been efficient, and faithful. 

Respectfully, 

WM. HOLBROOK, Physician. 

Monson, Oct. 1, 1877. 



1877.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



31 



PRINCIPAL'S REPORT. 



To the Board of Inspectors. 

Gentlemen, — I present herewith my Report of the con- 
dition of the schools and of the changes in the same during 
the past year. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Pupils in school Oct. 1, 1876 


322 


109 


431 


Admitted during the year . 








181 


79 


260 


Admitted second time 








14 


6 


20 


Different pupils during the year 








503 


188 


691 


Discharged .... 








189 


88 


277. 


Largest number at one time 








343 


116 


459 


Smallest number at one time 








307 


100 


407 


Average attendance 








- 


- 


413 


Remaining Oct. 1, 1877 




/ 




327 


107 


434 



Showing Range of Ages. 



Over twelve yeaxs of age 
Under five years of age 
Between five and twelve 



87 


15 


31 


20 


209 


72 



102 
51 

281 



Average age of pupils . 



years. 



Showing Classification. 



*1 


TEACHER, 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


1 


Miss M. E. Duncan .... 


78 




78 


2 


Miss M. L. Goodell . 








79 


_ 


79 


3 


Mrs. H. E. Darte 








41 


_ 


41 


4 


Miss E. M. Fullington 








49 


_ 


49 


5 


Mrs. A. P. Warner . 








_ 


54 


54 


6 


Miss L. A. Belding . 








24 


20 


44 


7 


Miss C. S. Clark 








23 


33 


56 


8 


Mrs. C. O. Shepard . 








33 


— 


33 



The 1st and 2d schools have half the boys each half-day. 



32 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Showing 


Studies pursued. 








Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Read in Edwards' Fourth Reader 


81 


23 


104 


Read in Edwards' Intermediate Reader 




68 


_ 


68 


Read in Edwards' Third Reader . 




72 


23 


95 


Read in Edwards' Second Readei 








21 


15 


36 


Read in Edwards' First Reader 








30 


26 


56 


Study written Arithmetic . 








42 


6 


48 


Study mental Arithmetic 










171 


37 


208 


Study Geography 










146 


47 


193 


Study History 










140 


- 


140 


Study Grammar . 










10 


- 


10 


Study Physiology 










78 


- 


78 


Write in Writing Books 










206 


54 


260 


Write on Slates . ..•..' 


86 


25 


111 



The teachers on duty at the date of my last report have, 
with one exception, remained through the year. Seven 
schools have been in operation all, and eight a part of the 
time. Fair progress has been made in the studies pursued ; 
and all has been accomplished, in most of the schools, that 
could reasonably be expected. 

Among the older scholars changes occur so frequently that 
it is difficult to realize very great progress in study. Out of 
ninety-four boys and girls over twelve years of age in the 
school one year ago, but thirty remain ; and of that number 
seventeen have some mental or physical infirmity, leaving 
but thirteen capable of being taught to any considerable 
extent. This affects unfavorably the appearance and stand- 
ing of the school, as does the change in the method of select- 
ing children to go out to places. 

Until recently, it was the custom, to some extent, to keep 
in the institution many of the best and most promising chil- 
dren, and to select for places, from the average and poorest 
classes, thereby retaining in the school children with whom 
it was possible to make a very favorable appearance and 
attain to a good degree of proficiency. 

This practice has been discontinued, so that the best and 
smartest are now always taken, without regard to the length 
of time they have spent in the school, whenever there is a 
call for children to go out to homes. It will be seen, there- 



1877.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 

fore, that our permanent scholars must consist mostly of the 
unfortunate ones — those unfit for service outside of an in- 
stitution. The Superintendent has done all in his power to 
improve the condition of the children, and to put the school 
upon a footing equal to that of the schools in other institu- 
tions of the State ; but there are many things to be clone 
before that can be accomplished which will involve a con- 
siderable expenditure of money. 

The building has never been properly fitted for the wants 
of a school ; most of the schoolrooms are too small ; in some 
of them sunshine never comes ; and when the schools are in 
session, pure air in them is something out of the question. 

Among the many needed improvements may be mentioned 
larger schoolrooms, better ventilation, better school furni- 
ture, and a better supply of maps, charts, and blackboards. 
In my opinion, a judicious expenditure of a few hundred 
dollars in pictures and mottoes, to give the walls of the 
schoolrooms a more cheerful and attractive appearance, 
would be a good investment. 

The little room in which assemble the school children 
one hour daily for musical instruction, lectures, sabbath- 
school concerts, devotional exercises, and on the sabbath for 
worship, is entirely inadequate for such purposes. The 
children are so much crowded, the air is so impure, and 
every one feels so uncomfortable, that order is very hard to 
preserve ; and it is nearly impossible to hold their attention 
long enough to impress upon them any moral or religious 
truths, or to teach them lessons pertaining to their every-day 
welfare. Could we have this room for one of the schools, 
and a suitable place provided for chapel services, we believe 
it would be an easy matter to enlarge and so re-arrange the 
others as to afford the needed relief. 

The sabbath school, as in former years, has been conducted 
in the schoolrooms by the teachers, who have bestowed a 
considerable amount of labor in teaching different exercises 
and preparing for the general sabbath-school concerts, which 
have been held twice in each term, besides a Bible recitation 
by one of the schools every sabbath evening. 

One hour daily has been given to practice in vocal music, 
during the greater part of the year, and until the beginning 
of the present term, since which time we have had no regu- 

5 



34 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

lar music-teacher. The Rev. James H. Bradford, Superin- 
tendent, has done very much by the deep interest he has 
taken in the children and the schools, as well as by his 
kind and courteous bearing toward us, to make our duties 
pleasant and agreeable. 

To you, gentlemen, for whose continued confidence I am 
indebted, I acknowledge my obligations. 

Respectfully, 

J. C. TIBBETTS, 

Principal. 
State Primary School, Monson, Oct. 1, 1877. 



1877.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 35 



REPORT OF THE ADVISORY BOARD. 



First Annual Report of the Advisory Board to His Excellency the Governor 

and Council. 

Gentlemen, — The ladies of the Advisory Board, in pre- 
senting their First Annual Report, feel obliged to say, that, in 
their opinion, the condition of the Primary School at Monson 
is such as to require a thorough reconstruction in its rules 
and regulations. 

That the present condition of the institution is not credit- 
able to the Commonwealth ; and in order to make the school 
what it should be, so many and such important changes are 
necessary, that the Board would respectfully suggest, — 

That the legislative Committee on Public Charitable Insti- 
tutions, in connection with the Board of State Charities, 
visit the school at as early a day as possible ; and that 
the first quarterly report of the Advisory Board to the 
Board of State Charities, prepared after as thorough an 
investigation as the time permitted, be laid before this com- 
mittee, to direct its attention to the points most imperatively 
demanding consideration. 

That the appropriation made be sufficient to enable the 
Superintendent to dispense with pauper help, such help 
being, in the opinion of this Board, most demoralizing. 

In short, that the appropriation be sufficient to put the 
Primary School on a par, at least, with the other State insti- 
tutions, particularly in view of the fact that these children 
are under the guardianship of the State, for the purpose of 
rescuing them from pauperism, and training them to be self- 
supporting citizens. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ADELE G. WINTHROP. 
ADELAIDE A. CALKINS. 
GEORGIANKA A. BOUTWELL. 

Oct. 17, 1877. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 25. 



TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL EEPOET 



THE INSPECTORS 



14. 



STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL 



MONSON 



FOR THE TEAR ENDING 



September 30, 1878; 



REPORT OF THE ADVISORY BOARD. 



BOSTON : 

3ftano, gijerg, Sc Co., Printers to tfje Commonmeattfj, 

117 Franklin Street. 

1879. 



€ommonwcattl) of Jtta00ari)U0rtt0. 



INSPECTORS' REPORT 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Council. 

The Inspectors of the State Primary School respectfully 
present herewith the sixth Annual Report of the school, and 
the twenty-fifth since the establishment of the institution. 
In submitting this, little need be added to the full Report of 
the superintendent, the principal of the school, the physi- 
cian, and the farmer, which are included in a subsequent 
part of this Report. 

The improvement which has been made in the various 
departments of the institution since our last annual state- 
ment, and the prosperity which has attended its operations 
another year, are causes of sincere congratulation. 

Whole number in the institution X)ct. 1, 1877 . . 525 

Admitted during the year . . . . . . . 332 

Total number . 857 

Placed in families, " on trial " .... 139 

Eloped 28 

Died 13 

Discharged by courts, and Board of State Charities 146 

326 

Kemaining Oct. 1, 1878 531 

The number placed in families exceeds the previous year 
by twelve ; and the number remaining is six in excess of the 
beginning of the year, on Oct.* 1, 1877. The abundant pro- 
ductions of the earth, and consequent cheapness of the means 
of support, have doubtless contributed to prevent a larger 
increase. 

We regret that more could not be placed in homes. The 
condition of the industries of the community will suggest 



4 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

some of the reasons why. With a better understanding of 
our duties and responsibilities, measures are being considered 
in view of greater efficiency in this important feature of our 
work; and the zealous spirit now manifest in it will, we 
trust, insure better results in the future. 

School. 

The education and training of these children is the para- 
mount purpose. The money provided so liberally by the 
Commonwealth for their maintenance should be expended 
with this prominently in view. They are to be fitted in all 
respects to be desirable members of households where they 
may grow to become self-supporting and law-abiding citizens. 

The school should comprehend all that belongs to their 
physical, mental, and moral development. It should meet 
all their reasonable claims for schooling, home, and paternal 
concern. It requires wise and interested workmen : experi- 
ence, and a self-sacrificing, cheerful, loving spirit, are pre- 
requisites to success. It has been the desire of the inspec- 
tors, the superintendent and his associates, as far as their 
respective opportunities have permitted, to see that these 
conditions were faithfully fulfilled. 

Discipline. 

We have endeavored to exercise due care that the disci- 
pline be as parental as possible, consistent with the govern- 
ment of so large a number in one household; to keep in- 
formed of the character and extent of the chastisement, a 
record thereof is made for the examination of the inspectors. 

Their evening songs, and the general exercises, both in the 
chapel and school, have been highly entertaining, as well as 
shown faithfulness on the part of their instructors. 

Diet. 

Their diet, or bill of fare, has been improved in quantity, 
qualitj^, variety, and preparation. 

The exemption from fatal sickness, in common with the 
community generally, is a cause of thankfulness to a kind 
Providence. Ophthalmia has existed to some extent. It 
has been limited mainly to a certain class who are sent to 
the hospital more or less frequently for treatment whenever 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 5 

changes of temperature or season occur. The predisposing 
causes in their cases are granulated lids, the result of previ- 
ous attacks, and, in many, from hereditary or blood condi- 
tions, together with the want of judicious and appropriate 
treatment. 

Dr. Holbrook has been untiring in his devotion to the 
medical wants of the institution. 

Buildings and Repairs. 

A detailed statement of the expenditure of the six thou- 
sand dollars of the special appropriation made by the last 
Legislature is included in the Superintendent's Report. 

The interiors of the schoolrooms and chapel have been 
greatly improved in convenience and attractiveness. Alter- 
ations have also been made in these apartments, to give more 
sunlight, and better opportunities for ventilation. 

The dormitories, and interior of the buildings generally, 
have been brightened by a fresh coat of paint and varnish. 
Many of the old " bunks " are superseded by those neater 
and more healthful. The bedding, and general condition of 
their sleeping-apartments, show thoroughness and taste in 
their care. 

A few hundred dollars of the special appropriation is 
reserved to be applied to introducing steam-heaters into the 
chimney-flues, which are eighteen or twenty inches square, 
in view of utilizing them to improve the ventilation in the 
schoolrooms during their occupancy, and the dormitories at 
other times. The work is in progress ; and when completed 
we confidently believe it will prove a profitable investment, 
and meet a long-felt necessity, in part at least, and form a 
basis for further extension, if deemed desirable, at some 
future time. 

The additions to the hospital, barn, and outbuildings, are 
described more fully by the superintendent. 

Farm. 

It will be observed that the farm and garden have been 
unprecedentedly productive. The question is often asked 
(which is a reasonable one), " Does the farm pay ? " For the 
want of more accurate and carefully prepared statistics, we 
are unable to answer intelligently. It is true that the boys 



6 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct 

are mostly small, and beyond the light work of the garden 
and farm, and that of but few months' duration, their ser- 
vices are unavailable. Consequently the farm is largely 
carried on by paid labor. The large number and variety of 
farm-implements, teams, fertilizers, grain to feed the stock, 
the repairs of buildings, and the wear and tear, and other 
incidental expenses required in conducting a farm on such 
an extensive scale, will naturally awaken inquiry in the mind 
of any economist. From as careful an estimate, however, as 
we have been able to make, we are of the opinion that the 
milk produced at three cents per quart will pay the running 
expenses, leaving the products of the garden, and others 
used in the family, together with the fruit, and use of men 
and teams in the incidental work, as net profit to the credit 
of the general expense account. 

General. 

In the month of December we regretted that the business 
engagements of the Hon. L. N. Gilbert of Ware, with whom 
we had been associated in mutual respect and confidence for 
nearly three years, necessitated his retirement from the 
Board. The vacancy thus made was not filled until late in 
the spring, when we welcomed his successor, the Hon. George 
W. Johnson of Brookfield. The ladies of the Advisory 
Board have made several visits to the institution during the 
year. On one occasion in the summer, the inspectors met 
them there, in accordance with a previous appointment. The 
inspectors have been ready to listen to their suggestions, and 
anxious to carry them into effect as fast and as far as practi- 
cable. We should regret any misunderstanding, or impres- 
sion of unwillingness to co-operate with them, in promoting 
the best interests of the children, and in maintaining the 
reputation of the State in its noble charities. 

In the review of the past year, whilst we grieve for the 
sad instances of unfaithfulness in high positions, which have 
astounded the moral sense of community, and brought dis- 
tress and dependence upon the aged, widows, and orphans, 
previously in comfortable circumstances, yet we cannot but 
rejoice that our reforming, charitable, and educational agen- 
cies are still actively striving to not only retrieve the loss of 
honor to the present generation, but to educate the children 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



to a more just sense of their duties to themselves and to 
their fellows. 

S. D. BROOKS, 
(Signed) E. V. B. HOLCOMB, 

GEO. W. JOHNSON, 

Inspectors. 
State Primary School, Oct, 1, 1878. 



OFFICERS, ASSISTANTS, AND THEIR SALARIES. 



Rev. James H. Bradford, superintendent and chaplain . 

Julius C. Tibbetts, assistant superintendent and principal 

John B. Chapman, clerk and steward 

Sumner A. Andrews, supervisor 

Edwin A. Nash, baker 

William F. Floyd, cook . 

Stillman J. Baker, watchman 

George H. Bradstreet, watchman 

J. Michael Sisk, driver . 

Edward Goodes, shoemaker 

Alexander Primrose, engineer . 

Mark Bentley, fireman . 

Dr. William Holbrook, physician 

Simon Katz, tailor. 

James C. Lally, boys' nurse . 

Mrs Charlotte A. St. John, girls' nurse 

Mrs. J. H. Bradford, matron . 

Mrs. J. C. Tibbetts, assistant matron 

Mrs. M. J. Hamilton, assistant matron 

Mrs. R. M. Pinkney, assistant matron 

Mrs. S. A. Andrews, seamstress 

Mrs. J. B. Chapman, seamstress 

Mrs. M. A. Bailey, laundress 

Mrs. Anna Grellet, supply matron . 

Mrs. Catherine McDonald, cook 

Miss Mary E. Duncan, teacher 

Miss Mattie P. Palmer, teacher 

Miss Emma C. Dibble, teacher 

Miss Eugenia M. Fullington, teacher 

Mrs. F. B. Shepard, teacher . 

Miss Clara S. Clark, teacher . 

Miss Josie M. Hamilton, teacher 

Miss Annie McGowan, girls' supervisor 

Mrs. Jane Darmody, charge of orphans' ward 

George H. Fisherdick, farmer . 

F. B. Shepard, in charge of work-boys 

George W. Keyes, teamster 



1,800 00 
1,000 00 
480 00 
500 00 
624 00 
420 00 
240 00 
240 00 
300 00 
480 00 
800 00 
300 00 
400 00 
240 00 
150 00 
250 00 
300 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00, 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
120 00 
104 00 
600 00 
350 00 
300 00 



8 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



R. S. Walls, assistant farmer . 
John T. B. Bailey, assistant farmer 
Thomas Moran, assistant farmer 
Joseph Morgan, assistant farmer 
William Kelley, hostler . 
Eugene Holmes, laborer . 
James McGowan, laborer 
John Keefe, blacksmith . 
George E. Davis, carpenter, per day 



240 00 

240 00 

240 00 

216 00 

96 00 

60 00 

60 00 

300 00 

2 50 



RECAPITULATION OF INVENTORY. 

[Taken Sept. 30, 1878, by L. S. Brooks of Springfield.] 

Real Estate. 



Land . H 








22,655 43 


Buildings . . 


89,005 00 




fill fi7() 4S 






Personal. 




Live stock 


7,157 00 


Produce of farm 


6,866 10 


Carriages and agricultural implements 


3,379 60 


Machinery and mechanical fixtures . 


7,636 03 


Personal property sup't's department 


5,230 44 


Beds and bedding, inmates' department . 


4,798 57 


Furniture, inmates' department 


3,814 16 


Clothing, boots and shoes 




5,233 25 


Dry goods 






2,015 65 


Groceries . . . 








1,379 33 


Library . 








669 80 


Drugs, medicine, &c. 








400 00 


Fuel ... 








3,180 00 


Heating, gas, &c. 








. 17,500 00 


Miscellaneous . 








451 29 




ffiO 711 °° 






• 


$181,381 65 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



Monsok, Mass., Sept. 30, 1878. 
To the Inspectors of the Massachusetts State Primary School. 

Gentlemen, — The falling leaves remind us that autumn 
has come, and with it the time of our Annual Report. We 
trust it will not be a formal report, but will be in some meas- 
ure adjusted to the vast importance of the interests which 
centre in this school. No one can look with indifference upon 
the spectacle of five hundred children, gathered by the kind 
care of the State, to be protected, clothed, sustained, and edu- 
cated, at public expense, in the hope of a true and respect- 
able life. The questions to be studied in such a school as 
this not only affect the persons here congregated, but soci- 
ety at large ; and how to act towards them so as to prevent 
crime, becomes a personal matter with all good citizens. 

Massachusetts, we believe, is the first State to establish a 
primary school for those children who have no settlement 
in any town, hence, if not cared for by her, must run at 
large, and become a fruitful source from which criminals are 
recruited. Michigan gathers the children from her town 
almshouses into an institution by themselves, and the citi- 
zens there take a just pride in its well-being. Our children 
are not, however, from town, but from the State Almshouse, 
and have no claim upon any town for support. In addition 
to that class, we have about fifty children committed to the 
Board of State Charities, placed here for temporary custody; 
and a few truants sent from towns who pay for their support. 
By the kind care of an overruling Providence, we have been 
preserved another year from serious sickness or calamity. 
Our deaths are almost entirely chronic cases, in which no 
human power could avail to prolong life. The number is thir- 
teen, a less number than for four years ; of these, six only are 
from the State Primary School. Three died from consump- 
tion, two from croup, one from cancer in stomach. The 
other seven are from the pauper department, which to-day 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MOXSOX. [Oct. 

numbers only forty-six. but has averaged seventy-seven dur- 
ing the year. Six of these were under tvro years of age : 
and the other, of consumption, was sent here to die. From 
the midair :: September, 1877, to one of the last days of 
I 7 ; e ruber, we had no death, a period of nearly three and 
one-half months : which is somewhat remarkable, as durins' 
these same months in Monson and Palmer, quite near us, 
there were about twenty-five deaths from diphtheria alone. 
The health of so large a family certainly does not show 
negle:t :: sanitary measures, or lack of nursing. 

_en it is remembered that our population is equal to 
that of many villages of the State, it must be admitted that 
the food and care of so many young children cannot be lack- 
ing very essentially, :: produce such a result. 

^Thdle acknowledging in its full measure the overruling 
providence of God in all the affairs of men, we believe in the 
plain principles of the rather uncommon characteristic of 
common-sense, in their application to e very-day life. 

The proper use of clothing, food, care in relation to ex- 
posure to the sudden changes of the weather, exposure to 
draughts in school, and many other matters, if properly 
attended to in time, prevent disease : of the ails to which 
human flesh is heir, we have our share. The same experi- 
ence as last year shows that half the sickness, and more than 
half the deaths, take place in the pauper department, avera- 
ging only seventy-- even in a population averaging five hun- 
dred and thirty-seven. This is one of -the incidental evil- ~t 
labor under, having paupers here at all : and it is a matter of 
such vast importance, that we desire to present some views 
on the subje::. 

The State Primary School was evidently founded to raise 
the children of the unfortunate classes who are dependent 
upon the State for support, to a condition of independence. 

The lawusr- these wards regarding them fsee acts of 18 5 \ 
chap. _ " They shall not be sonsidered as inmates of the 

almshouse, nor be allowed to mingle with the inmates, nor 
shall they be designated as paupers." It -eems to have been 
the design of those conducting the s she ol at that time, to run 
it with as little expenditure of mon- possible. Thai 
to the introduction of a clause allowing the Board of State 
Charities to trar. pauper from Tewksbury or Bridge- 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 11 

water here for support. It will be seen at once, that the ex- 
istence of any considerable number of such a class gives char- 
acter to the whole institution. The place is known to-day 
to most people as the " almshouse," notwithstanding it is 
twelve years since the act establishing the State Primary 
School was passed. We do not believe it is either wisdom 
or economy to see how little money can be spent for food, 
clothing, and instruction, of this multitude of children. The 
fact is, that the money devoted to this school has been so 
much less than the other State institutions, that it seems, 
in comparison to them, like a country cottage beside a city 
mansion. The appropriation for 1877, for current expenses, 
averaged $1.58 per week each, for all expenses, including 
keeping the premises in repair. 

Let any gentleman undertake to clothe, feed, and educate 
his boys and girls on $1.58 a week, and he will see, better 
than any words of mine will tell him, what policy has been 
pursued toward these children. The expense of support- 
ing all the State's poor for the same period was $2.77, which 
includes our children ; so that the others must have cost as 
much more than $2.77 as ours cost less than that. When we 
examine the criminal class, the difference is still greater ; 
and we have some fifty persons here who come under that 
head, — children committed by the court to the Board of 
State Charities. 

The inmates of the other State institutions, whose children 
may more nearly be compared to ours than any others, were, 
for that year, supported at a cost which is as 3.96 or 4.94 to 
1.58. Of course we have some advantage of greater num- 
bers ; yet the difference of two and a half or three and an 
eighth times as much is altogether too great. That is to 
say, if one of our boys, guilty of no crime, escapes, and sets. 
our neighbor's buildings on fire, or breaks into his house, and 
steals his property, the State at once spends more than 
double the amount on his food, clothing, education, &c, that 
it did here. 

The whole effect of the school seems to have been to get 
it down to the lowest possible cost. On representing these 
things to the Finance Committee of the Legislature last win- 
ter, they increased this year's appropriation to $2.08 per 
week; but the same bill gave another institution for children 



12 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

$4.16 per week. My argument is, that no great good result 
can be expected from an institution composed of young chil- 
dren, which is run with the sole object of seeing how little it 
will cost. 

Every one knows that crime is expensive, and that con- 
stant pauperism is also. Complaints are heard, these hard 
times, on all sides, of the cost of supporting the dependent 
classes. Is it best, then, to train up these youth so that they 
will surely become and continue dependent upon the State 
during life, for support, either as paupers or criminals ? Is 
it wisdom or economy ? Is it not " straining at the spigot, 
and losing at the bung " ? 

The presence of a number of persons among us whose 
character is formed, and no action or influence of ours can 
possibly have much effect to change, — of characters such as 
we ought to desire to train our children not to be, — is at 
once destructive to our best efforts. A mother whose char- 
acter is bad, who is under the same roof with her child, will 
have vastly more influence in forming its character than its 
teacher, with forty or fifty others to train, can have. If it 
is said that mothers ought not to be separated from their 
children, then let the State provide some other place for the 
eighty children who have mothers here; and let us have a 
chance to train the four hundred others as they should be. 
But the idea of separation of families loses its force if we 
consider what the State Primary School was designed to be. 
Do mothers go to the various boarding-schools of the State ? 
Are they found at South Had ley, Wellesley, Williston, or 
Phillips ? Are they in Westfield, Framingham, or Bridge- 
water Normal Schools? Are they at Harvard, Amherst, 
or Williams? Is the State Primary School a school, or 
what is it ? No mother goes even to a district-school with 
her four-year-old child. These mothers have failed, for 
some reason, to provide for and educate their children. Is 
it not for the State to say how it shall be done, to fix the con- 
ditions and leave them to be voluntarily complied with ? Is 
it not necessary, as a measure of self-defence against ignor- 
ance, poverty, and crime, for her to do so ? Massachusetts 
has said she would educate these hundreds of poor children. 
That does not mean to educate them in poverty and vice ; 
for, in most instances, the two things will be found to have 
close connection. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 13 

The law says they shall not mingle with paupers. How 
can they be prevented from seeing them, if they are under 
the same roof? Separation then would be harsh ; and par- 
ents are sent here on purpose to assist in the care of their 
children, to labor with and for them, as they do in the laun- 
dry, sewing-rooms, kitchens, &c. There must be a mothers' 
meeting, if mothers are here. Children must, at such times, 
be stuffed with sweetmeats or food, if it can be obtained. 
It is amusing to see the quantity and assortment that chil- 
dren are obliged by their parents to swallow. 

No : let us have the State Primary School a few years as a 
school, and see how the children appear. If the experiment 
prove a failure, it can easily be remedied. See if there is 
complaint then, that families will not take the children. 
This pauper-help is, in my opinion, the most expensive help 
we can have. Does a pauper labor for the love of it ? Does 
he always do his work in the . most faithful manner? Does 
he labor in such a way as to be a competent and proper 
teacher for the young ? No : the whole influence and exam- 
ple of these persons is pernicious as a class. I am aware 
there are noble exceptions ; but, as a rule, those who are 
retained are kept because their character or habits will not 
promise the prospect of support outside ; and those who are 
released are released because they are competent to take 
care of themselves. 

I think the last Committee of Charities of the Legislature 
were disposed to look at this question aright ; but the defeat 
of the charity-bill carried every minor question with it. 

As said above, I am not in favor of seeing how little can 
be spent upon these children. It is no more economy than it 
would be to see how little can be spent on schoolhouses or 
teachers through the State. If a good teacher can be hired 
for ten dollars per week, and one good for nothing for two 
dollars, it is only total loss to employ the less expensive. If 
Massachusetts cannot afford to give these children a good 
education, she cannot afford to have a State Primary School 
at all, and had better save the $1.58 or 2.08 per week. But 
she can afford it. She has always proved herself among the 
most liberal in her policy toward the dependent and criminal 
classes. Her poorest citizens take a just pride in the small 
part they contribute toward a real good cause. AH that is 



14 PKIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

wanted is to fairly make the case clear, and the want known, 
and we believe it will be fully met. That is what we are 
endeavoring in this paper to do, — to set forth the circum- 
stances and needs of the children here gathered, and our 
reasons therefor. 

I am as strongly opposed to building large and expensive 
places of residence for this class. Houses to accommodate 
not over thirty children, spread over a large tract of territory, 
with plenty of water from good sources, dry soil for .play- 
grounds, good air and sunlight, good drainage, land for labor 
to raise all the food possible, easy of access to all parts of 
the State, all under one superintendence, would exactly fill 
the bill. We hope to see the day when Massachusetts will 
do just that for all this class of children, and then train 
them for the places they are to fill ; if to do housework in a 
family, then for that, — all girls should be taught that, any 
way, — if for labor on a farm, then for that. If a farmer 
comes for a boy, he asks, " Can he be trusted? " Well, how 
can we tell, shut up behind a fence he cannot scale ? kt Can 
he drive cows or a horse ? " How do we know, without any 
experience? " Can he milk, or harness a horse?" He 
never has here. Are not these children here to be taught 
how to labor, as well as how to study? Will they not spend 
a very much greater part of life in labor than study ? and is 
it not as necessary to provide suitable teachers for labor as 
for schools ? 

The question before us, in view of hard times, is, how to 
make the most of our present accommodations. No great 
expenditure will be undertaken until business is entirely 
revived. But much good can be, and we know is, done here. 
It is our duty to point out both the excellences and defects 
of the present system. 

There are a great many good things about this school. A 
great deal has been done with the sums appropriated, both 
last year and the previous years, to improve the school. We 
did not get all we asked for last winter ; but have tried to 
use the sum obtained to the best advantage, and hereby 
render an account of our stewardship. 

The amount reported last October of the last year's special 
appropriation of $475.60 was all used in carrying the water 
into the main building, and erecting three standpipes, with 
hose on each floor, for fire purposes. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

The special appropriation for schools, books, maps, charts, 
furniture, and fixtures, of one thousand dollars, and for gen- 
eral repairs and improvements of five thousand dollars, has 
been partly expended as follows : — 

School-furniture, teachers' desks 

Globes, charts, maps, chromos, and blackboards 

Books 



$371 00 
190 50 

328 87 


$890 37 
109 63 


$1,000 00 



Leaving unexpended at this date . 



The special appropriation for alterations and repairs has 
been expended as follows : — 

Lumber $1,458 41 

Tin-roofing and plumbing 147 62 

Kettles and setting . 324 91 

Brick and nails 53 00 

Window-shields, boys' play-house .... 57 00 

Paint, glass, oil, &c 376 11 

Painters' labor . 305 38 

Carpenters' labor 859 25 

Masons' labor . . 87 12 

$3,668 80 

Balance unexpended . . , . . . . 1,331 20 



$5,000 00 



With a part of the balance, pipes are to be run into the 
chimneys, to help ventilation in the schoolrooms and dormi- 
tories. 

For the better understanding of what has been done with 
the above sums, let me say that our schoolrooms have been 
put in good order, with paint and whitewash ; eighty-eight 
school and seven teachers' desks obtained ; chromos put in 
every room and at the hospital ; a valuable addition made to 
our library, which needed it sadly ; and the schools well sup- 
plied with charts, maps, globes, &c. Alterations have been 
made in some of the rooms, desks changed about, partitions 
removed, windows to admit sunlight put in, and the room 



16 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

occupied as chapel filled with desks, and given to the first 
school. 

All the out-buildings have received one, some two, coats of 
white paint. Almost every foot of surface ever whitewashed 
before has been newly coated. Floors have been laid in 
chapel, old shoe-shop, new shoe-shop, and new clothes-room ; 
three new boilers put in the kitchen to cook with indirect 
steam, by which we are able to give greater variety to our 
diet. 

v The hospital has been repainted inside and out, newly clap- 
boarded, an extension of eighteen by forty-four feet built on 
the north side, for a dining-room, with kitchen and pantry, 
with a good cellar under the whole ; the water-closets con- 
nected with chimneys for ventilation : which improvements, 
when completed, make the hospital, so far as it goes, a good 
one. The boys' privy has been reconstructed, and an entire- 
ly new one built at the girls' yard, both of which use dry 
earth daily, and are much better for the place, in our opin- 
ion, than the use of water would be, and for these reasons : 
first, expense — the cost of water-works there would be sev- 
eral thousand dollars ; second, loss of material which is now 
all saved ; third, liability to get out of order ; fourth, the 
product of a large water-closet is a nuisance unless it goes 
into the sea, and we are too far away from salt water for 
that. 

A hen-house, capable of accommodating two hundred chick- 
ens, has been built with yards. An additional shed for cows, 
which brings them out of the cellar, and all under one super- 
vision, — a very great necessity and improvement, — has also 
been made. . 

On reviewing what has been accomplished, we find it is, so 
far as the sums spent would accomplish it, just about what 
was in mind when the money was asked for ; and we have 
reason to be gratified that so much for the welfare and com- 
fort of the children has been got out of it. 

The average number of persons for the year is about what 
it was last year, 537 ; but our younger and helpless ones are 
increasing, while the pauper department is diminishing. We 
are glad this is so, and hope the latter department may 
reach before the next year is completed. I am opposed 
to building houses for these children to dwell in, where they 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

will have all their wants supplied without effort. I believe 
in labor, in self-support, and in beginning early in life to in- 
stil it iDto the mind of a child, that there is something to do 
in the world besides to be waited upon. Children can no 
more work well without being taught, than they can recite 
well. There is a vast difference in men about performing 
the most menial duties of life, and in the manner of doing the 
same kind of work. One has learned how : one has not. 
This is a place where children are supposed to be fitted for 
the family where there does not exist parental love to care 
for the wants, endure the shortcomings, and teach by slow, 
repeated lessons, but families who want things done, and are 
willing to give shelter and protection for the doing. How to 
do things, should be one of the principal lessons taught. We 
need good teachers in labor as well as in school. It makes 
some difference, whether our work is done well, or not. The 
question, " Does it pay ? " is .decided by long years of watch- 
ing the course and character of young people. 

The history of the school for the past year is one of prog- 
ress. Time, and the means placed at our disposal by the 
legislature, have enabled us to make some needed improve- 
ments, but still we need, just as much as before, several other 
things which have been asked for for two years, and which 
we shall continue to plead for until we get them. One thing 
needed is a chapel, and a play and wash room underneath. 
No member of the legislature who should walk into the 
boys' cellar about six o'clock morning, or half-past six even- 
ing, would doubt for a moment my proposition, that a cellar is 
a very poor place in which to keep human beings. For the 
girls it is nearly as bad, though, being much less in numbers, 
one does not feel the need quite as strongly. No good citizen 
who pays taxes for the support of this school would hesitate 
a moment to pay his assessment to provide a chapel and wash 
room, if he could see our children a few times in their pres- 
ent quarters. Such a building as we need, of brick or stone, 
as it ought to be built, will cost ten thousand dollars. 

It would give me great pleasure to ask some of my friends 
who are interesting speakers or teachers to give a course of 
familiar lectures to my children ; but we have no suitable 
place, — no place where we can assemble more than half of 
our population comfortably. The things taught by the 



18 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

stereoptieon are very numerous, but we have no proper 
place for an exhibition. We might sing a great deal more, 
and a great deal better, than we do, if we had a suitable 
place. Our children might get some good possibly from 
daily practice of music, and they certainly would thereby 
strengthen their love for that which is elevating. We use 
the place we have as faithfully as possible, though the effect 
produced is illustrated by sawing with a tool that has not felt 
the file for months, or chopping with an axe or mowing with 
a scythe that was ground last year. It can be done : it is 
not very encouraging to laborer or employer in the work 
accomplished. Put three hundred children at seven o'clock 
as close as they can sit on the benches and at the desks 
of the first schoolroom, our chapel, and ask them to sing. 
If the weather is clear and warm, and the windows on both 
sides open, — circumstances which may be found two months 
out of the twelve, — all goes well for a while. But soon 
even then the air becomes dull and heavy ; the children fol- 
low suit. They lose interest in the work ; their eyes grow 
sleepy ; some of them soon fall asleep in spite of music or the 
constant call of their teacher. Then they must be made to 
stand up, to keep awake. What is the matter? The slow 
poison of carbonic acid gas exhaled from numerous pairs of 
lungs enter numerous other lungs, affecting the brain, and 
bringing on stupor. This is our best show. In dull, damp 
weather, the effect is as much worse as a wet, foggy day is 
more unpleasant than this bright September day. In cold 
weather, when the wind blows, or whenever the heat in the 
room is greater than that outside, if the windows are open 
(which must be done to get any air at all), the cold air flows 
or pours in on to the heads or necks of the children, and the 
effect is any thing but good. We do not ask for fancy woods, 
or stained glass, or frescoed ceilings ; but we ask for pure air 
and pleasant associations with the room devoted to the high- 
est intellectual and spiritual needs of these hundreds of boys 
and girls whose only hour of real entertainment is here. 
Their table is not like a family table. No father or mother 
sits at either side to smile lovingly upon them, to guard their 
tongues against evil conversation, and teach them that which 
so many children in the thousand happy homes in this State 
learn. No loving mother attends them to bed, to bid them 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

have pleasant dreams in the condition, so much like death, 
into which they drop. But they are, and must be, treated in 
the mass. In some measure this lack might be made up to 
them by the exercises of chapel. Think of children spending 
all the years of their childhood in this institution, and con- 
trast their monotonous life with your own happy childhood, or 
that of your own family. It seems to me, no true, intelligent 
man in this State will longer deny us the few dollars we ask 
to build a place where we may make up to them in some 
measure what they lose in the respects alluded to. 

A good-sized, plain, substantial building, located near 
enough to our present buildings to be connected with them 
by a bricTge, to enable the children to pass to their sleeping- 
rooms without going down stairs and out doors through wind 
and storm, with a well-ventilated washroom above ground, 
completes our plan. On one end of the chapel we would 
have a library-room, where the children could get books as 
they pass out on Sunday, so that they might spend the 
day in a pleasant manner. 

During the past year we have kept at work improving the 
building of the State Primary School, and so adding to the 
equipment thereof as to avoid the unpleasant remarks about 
the " dark ages " that formerly were made. First in the 
order of time, after the water-supply was introduced, — the 
reservoir, holding three hundred thousand gallons, com- 
pleted; the stand-pipes, three in number, with nine places 
where fifty feet of linen hose lies coiled up ready for instant 
use in case of fire, — attention was called to the wooden 
bunks, in which four children slept, often perfectly nude, 
rolling over each other like young kittens ; bunks that were 
made in the early history of the institution, and which were 
incapable of improvement. Messrs. Tucker & Co. furnished 
us iron cribs, which, with fresh beds, give no longer an 
opportunity for the intelligent visitor to exclaim, " Is this 
Massachusetts ? " A part during the early part of the year, 
and the others more recently, have been cast out, until, 
except packed away as a curiosity, we have no bunks. 

Next, attention was called to the fact that three hundred 
boys had only one water-closet for use just previous to re- 
tiring ; the result of which was a line waiting turn, from a 
dozen to twenty, and great use of the carryalls as soon as 



20 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

they reached their dormitories. This evil was remedied by 
building, just outside of the main building, on the same floor 
with the play-room, where the boys are when they use them, 
a dozen convenient modern water-closets, into which the sun 
shines through three sidewalk windows, and which are ven- 
tilated by two six -inch galvanized iron pipes, extending to 
the top of the house. They are convenient, well lighted, 
secure against frost, clean, well ventilated, concealed from 
notice outside, from abuse inside, with no unnecessary ex- 
posure ; they fully meet the purpose for which built, and are 
a success every way ; good enough for anybody, and none 
too good for the children. The cost was about $275. If we 
could put in, in connection with our dormitories on each 
floor, as good closets as those, one of the greatest evils 
remaining in the institution would be abated. The cost 
would be considerable, for they would need protection from 
freezing, and would need to extend through the two upper 
stories in at least three places. The use of the carryall, in 
my opinion, is very objectionable. 

Early in March we commenced painting the out-build- 
ings, and have been over the whole of them. During the 
last few months temporary shade has been afforded the 
hospital children, by use of awnings stretched along on 
the south side. The absence of grass under them shows 
how much they have been used. 

Last autumn, to carry our plants over the winter, we put 
a plant-house in a nook near the laundry. The cost in cash 
was $27.50 ; it was constructed as cheaply as possible. The 
gardener has sold nearly forty dollars' worth of plants and 
vegetables from it, besides making our grounds beautiful on 
every side, supplying flowers for chapel every sabbath, for 
the children's private beds, and to adorn the last resting- 
place of the dead. 

To improve the boys' yard we have set out trees, seeded 
a portion, and covered a large place with a deep layer of 
stones and clean gravel. It certainly cannot be the muddy 
place it has been ; and the saving to clothing, we believe, will 
more than pay its cost. 

That milk is one of the best articles of food for children, 
is a proposition few will deny. How to get a sufficient 
quantity, get it pure, and keep it sweet, is a problem we are 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 

trying to solve. My predecessor did a great deal for its 
solution, and need not be ashamed of what he accomplished ; 
yet other things remain in the same line, some of which we 
have tried to do. There needed first to be material raised 
to feed the stock. This year we have cut two hundred and 
thirteen tons of hay and rowen, one lot having yielded at 
least four tons for the third crop. We have had corn fodder 
and millet for use until the frost came : we have twelve 
acres of corn, which has a great yield, six acres turnips, three 
mangolds, two carrots, &c. Our hay is of the very best qual- 
ity. The cows are all kept, since building the cow-shed, in 
clean, well-ventilated stables, where dry earth and sand are 
constantly used to deodorize. They are fed all they will eat 
throughout the year, spend both day and night in the pasture, 
milked with perfect regularity at five o'clock, morning and 
night, the year round, and a record of every milking kept. 
No better milk is produced in the State than here of its 
kind, though, doubtless, pure-blooded Alderney cows produce 
richer milk than the Ayrshire which we keep. All our 
young children in the baby-room, nursery, and orphan ward, 
as well as at the hospital, have the milk new from the cow. 
The others have it after it is kept a few hours in a cool, per- 
fectly sweet milk-room, according to the Swiss process, in 
deep cans, and the cream removed. 

We have not had a pint of sour milk this summer. The 
children in the dining-hall 'have a liberal supply of butter 
once a week, the working-women daily. We do not think 
the habit of removing the cream needs any defence. Not 
one family in five in this Commonwealth, I am satisfied, uses 
the amount of milk we do, and none of those who buy milk 
get that so nice and pure. It would be only hurtful to pam- 
per the appetites of these children : they must take the 
world as they find it. They are to go to homes where many 
of the luxuries must be foregone. We do not want our 
children to refuse homes which are obtained for them, be 
cause they could not get cream. 

What we have done in the way of improvement only makes 
it more necessary to carry it on. Painting, whitewashing, 
and papering ought to be continued until this building is 
rejuvenated. 

We do not believe the best results for these children can 



22 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

ever be reached with this congregate system; but still a 
grand work can be done, and we know is done now, even in 
this crowded state. He who made man arranged the family 
system. We do not believe much improvement can be made 
upon it, as a place to train a child ; but the ideal family is by 
no means always represented where there is an outward man- 
ifestation of it. The failure of father and mother to live up 
to the duties and obligations God imposed upon them makes 
institutions necessary. Banish intoxicating drink and the 
kindred vices, and the State might sell this farm for some 
other purpose. Almost all who enter our doors may lay to 
vice of some kind the immediate or remote cause of their 
coming. Numerous families here are represented in Concord, 
Sherborn, Bridgewater, Deer Island, and the jails of the State. 
When families are so destroyed, and children are left to the 
street and neglect, an institution is a beneficent intermediate 
condition for them before they are introduced into a family 
again. That, however, is their destiny, and it should be ever 
kept in mind. The State Primary School is a place, then, as 
we understand it, where children of parents who have neg- 
lected or are not able to care for them are to be trained for 
a family. Things, machinery, processes that fit them for that 
end, pay, and should be encouraged. Boys and girls should 
be taught not only to study and recite, not only to cultivate 
the memory and reason, but the eye, the ear, the hand. 
Teachers of how to work are not second in importance. An 
ideal institution for these children should be located conve- 
nient to railroads. Houses should be constructed of sub- 
stantial material, to contain not over thirty children each, 
with three persons to take care of them. They should have 
the same restraints that other houses have — no more. They 
should be managed by true, noble, self-denying men and 
women, who have common sense, pleasant dispositions, strict 
methodical habits, and sufficient vim to impress themselves 
upon the children. They should know each child as if it 
were their own. Individual training is hardly possible in a 
place like this. The table could be a family table , action 
could be suited to the character and wants of each individual. 
Street life should give way to true family life ; each child 
should be taught to do something, to sustain some responsi- 
bility, to be accountable for something ; should be trusted, 
should be governed, should ofyey, and should learn. 



1878.] PUBXIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23 

This side hill is not the place for such a school. It lacks 
in quality of soil, in water, and because of its exposure. 
But I suppose the State is in no temper in these hard times 
to build a child's institution now ; and we shall have to do 
what we can with these means to accomplish this great work. 
But not until a barn can ~be converted into, and used as, a 
church, and a factory be used as a college, and a stable used 
as a jail, can this almshouse for adults be made suitable for 
the best result for children. Whenever Massachusetts is 
ready, we should like to help build a model child's school for 
as many as need to use it. At present, while we may think 
how it should be, it is the dictate of wisdom to make the 
best of what we already have. 

It will not remedy the evils of this place, to merely find 
fault, else they had all been corrected some time ago. There 
are persons who seem to think that the chief end of life, but 
it takes neither brains nor heart to find fault. A steady 
growth is the most healthy growth for a being or an institu- 
tion. We are growing. Not a month passes without some 
advance. 

It is evident in the general appearance of the children : 
their very faces show it. It is evident in the appearance of 
the surroundings, in the schoolrooms and hospital, in the 
death-rate, in the small number in the pauper-department, 
though the State Primary School never contained so many 
children as to-day, or so young an average age. There is no 
reason why Massachusetts should be ashamed of her primary 
school. We believe these children will be sought after, and 
ought to be. We believe they can be so trained as to be 
fitted to enter families who will give them a chance to work 
out their own salvation from poverty and crime, and that is 
all they should expect to have done for them. They are to 
become self-made men and women ; and if the State clears 
away the obstacles from before them, and gives them a 
chance to do something for themselves and their kind, it 
does a work for which they should ever be grateful, and I 
believe will be. We have had instances the past year where 
this gratitude has been shown. Boys have gone out from 
here impressed with the truth, and evidently determined to 
act well their part in life. 

The work develops well here, and with all its drawbacks is 
one that it is impossible not to be interested in. 



24 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

A very tender state of feeling has existed among onr 
children for some months, which promises nmch good to 
them ; and I have no donbt but a large number have deter- 
mined to make themselves useful members of society, both 
with regard to the life that now is, and that which is to 
come. 

The facts connected with this heart-education, it is hardly 
necessary to detail here. We have found the children very 
ready to hear truth ; and not only has seed been sown, but 
fruit has matured under our eyes during the year past. 
Much of the personal work to ennoble and reform the children 
has been done by the officers. In all departments we have 
those here who labor from the deepest interest in the welfare 
of the children. Quite a number of changes have taken 
place during the past year, in our official list,- — some from 
resignation from various causes, some to take more influential 
and remunerative positions. Our kind wishes have gone 
with those who have gone. Mr. R. F. Bishop, our 'gardener, 
was called to take charge of the industrial school at Law- 
rence. His long experience, even and kind disposition, and 
intelligent methods, made him a valuable officer. 

A glance at our pay-roll will show that if we have good 
men and women, they must work for the love of it ; and that 
is the case. We think the devotion of those having charge 
of the children in the various departments warrants our ear- 
nest commendation. 

To my officers who have labored all the year with singular 
devotion to the interests of the inmates of this school, to 
those children who have tried to govern themselves, to 
those who have labored faithfully in their places of labor, I 
not only return thanks, but am deeply grateful. To you, 
gentlemen of the Board, who have watched from week to 
week with me the interest of this school, and consulted for 
its welfare, I am sure the thanks of the public are due, and 
mine are hereby tendered for your uniform courtesy. We 
begin a new official year with brighter hopes of good things 
in store for us than last. Attention is more and more 
directed to these children who are soon to make part of the 
society of this State. Therefore our hopes of benefiting 
them are strong. 

Our barns and cellars contain evidence of a bountiful 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 25 

harvest. The experience of the year has only confirmed our 
impression that the system of putting out children should be 
revised. The producer and the consumer should be in close 
communication, to do the work effectively. 

With an increased appropriation, we have been able to add 
some things to our dietary, and have many things done in a 
more efficient manner ; but there is still room for improve- 
ment, better supervision by more persons. Things that cost 
more would pay better. 

We hope the legislature will devise a system of per capita 
appropriation. How much the State should pay per week 
for such work as is done here, they are able to decide ; 
but it is impossible for any committee, having all the other 
charitable institutions to look after, to enter much into the 
detail of any one. I am impressed with this truth from the 
fact that this school, with more than five hundred souls, 
was represented before the committee somewhat less than an 
hour last winter. If the system on which the various hos- 
pitals of the State have built up so good a reputation for 
management is good for them, why is it not good for us ? 
Let the legislature say what the expense per capita shall be ; 
and let the superintendent and inspectors, who are on duty 
the year through, expend it for the best interest of the school, 
which will be the best interest of 'the State. 

Please find annexed tables showing the present status and 
movement of our population for the year ; also lists of farm 
and garden produce. 

Laboring, hoping, praying, for the highest good of these 
my children, believing in the possibility of good lives to 
nearly all of them, and commending ourselves to the care of 
a kind Providence for another year, 

I remain your obedient servant, 

J. H. BRADFORD, Superintendent, 



26 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



STATISTICS. 

Whole number in institution, Oct. 1, 1877 . . . . 525 

In State Primary School . . . . - . . . 434 

In support or pauper department 89 

In custody .2 

Remaining in State Primary School, Oct. 1, 1877 . 434 

Boys 327 

Girls 107 

Admitted during year ending Sept. 30, 1878 . . 309 

From support or pauper department . . 203 

Boys . . . ., " ■ . . . 128 

Girls 75 

From temporary custody .... 43 

Boys . . . . . . . 33 

Girls 10 

Placed " on trial " during year, and returned . 26 

Boys 15 

Girls 11 

Returned, previously placed .... 21 

Boys 9 

Girls 12 

Returned after elopement .... 12 

Boys • . 12 

Truants 4 

Boys . 4 

Total number in State Primary School during year 215 528 743 

Whole number discharged during year . . . 259 

Placed by visiting agent " on trial " . . 130 

Boys ....... 98 

Girls .32 

Discharged by Board of State Charities to 

support department 10 

Boys 8 

Girls 2 

Discharged by Board of State Charities to 

friends ....... 81 

Boys 50 

Girls 31 

Discharged by Board of State Charities to 

Tewksbury Almshouse . . . . 4 

Boys . 4 

Discharged by Board of State Charities to 

Westborough Reform School ... 3 

Boys ....... 3 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



27 



Elopements (12 have befcn returned) 


. 




17 


Boys .... 






17 




Truants' " Expiration Sentence " 


. 


. 




8 


Boys .... 






8 




Deaths . . . . 








6 


Boys .... 






6 




Number remaining in State Primary ( 


School, 


Oct. 






1, 1878 










Boys .... 






334 




Girls .... 






150 




Of this number 










3 boys are truants. 










42 boys and 13 girls came from court. 








289 boys and 137 girls came from support department. 




Whole number in support department 


> 








Oct. 1, 1877 .... 










Men 






13 




Women .... 






29 




Boys .... 




27 






Girls .... 


. 20 








Admitted during year ending Sept. 30 


» 








1878 










From State Almshouse . 








222 


Men . . 






2 




Women .... 






21 




Boys 




129 






Girls 


70 








Transferred from Primary School 








10 


Boys .... 




8 






Girls .... 


2 








Births 








3 


Boys .... 




2 






Girls .... 


1 









484 



89 



235 



Whole number in department during 

year 93 166 50 



15 324 



Whole number discharged daring year 
ending Sept. 30, 1878 
Discharged by Board of State Chari- 
ties to friends 
Men 

Women . 
Boys 
Girls 



15 



12 



39 



278 



28 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Discharged by Board of State Chari 
ties to State Almshouse 
Men .... 
Women .... 
Discharged by Board of State Chari 
ties to Primary School 
Boys .... 
Girls .... 
Discharged by Board of State Chari' 
ties to Massachusetts General 
Hospital, Boston 
Man 

Placed " on trial " by visiting agent 
Men 

Women . 
Boys 
Eloped . 
Men 

Women . 
Boys 
Deaths . 

Women . 
Boys 
Girls 

Discharged by Board of State Chari- 
ties to authorities at Boston, for 

larceny 

Woman . . . 



75 



128 



203 

1 

8 

10 



Number remaining in support Oct. 1, 
1878 . 

Men 
Women 
Boys 
Girls 



12 



27 



46 



Number remaining in custody Oct. 1, 

1877 

Boys 



Admitted during year ending Sept. 30, 

1878 

From court . 
Boys 
Girls 
Returned after elopement 
Boy ... 

Whole number during year . 



11 



32 



43 



44 



46 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



29 



Whole number discharged during year 
ending Sept. 30, 1878 



45 



Admitted to State Primary School . 

Boys . . ... 33 

Girls 10 



43 



Placed on trial 

Girl 
Eloped . 

Boy 



Number remaining Oct. 1, 1878 



Whole number in institution Oct. 1, 
1878 . . . . ... 

In State Primary School 

In support 

In custody " temporary " 



484 

46 

1 



531 



Largest number 

Smallest 

Average 

Largest 

Smallest 

Average 



any one time in institution during year 



State Pri. School during year 

u (4 a 

a a u 



561 
518 
537 
487 
434 
457 



Table showing Whole Number of Persons in the Institution, Oct. 1, for past 

Seven Years. 



Sept. 30, 1872 

" 30,1873 

" 30, 1874 

" 30, 1875 

" 30, 1876 

" 30,1877 

" 30, 1878 



398 
453 
493 
512 
546 
525 
531 



Average Number of Persons supported in the Institution for Seven Years. 



For year ending Sept. 30, 1872 

" 30, 1873 

" 30, 1874 

" 30, 1875 

" 30, 1876 

" 30, 1877 

" 30, 1878 



Number of Children sent to the Institution by Courts. 

For year ending Sept. 30, 1873 

" 30, 1874 



431 
424 
481 
496 
515 
535 
537 



71 

61 



30 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



For year ending Sept. 30, 1875 

" " " 30, 1876 ..... 

" " 30, 1877 

" " 30, 1878 

Number of Children placed out in Families i ' On Trial. ' 

For year ending Sept. 30, 1873 
" 30, 1874 
" 30, 1875 
" 30, 1876 
" 30, 1877 
" 30, 1878 

Number of Children returned from Places. 

For year ending Sept. 30, 1873 
30, 1874 
30, 1875 
30, 1876 
30, 1877 
30, 1878 



33 
54 
48 
44 



138 
125 
152 
142 
127 
137 



41 
45 
52 
39 
39 
47 



Number of Deaths in the Institution. 



For year ending Sep" 


■>. 30, 1873 . 


. 




6 


" " 30, 1874 . 


. 


18 


" " " 30, 1875 . 


. . 


23 


" " 30, 1876 . 


. . • 


32 


" 30,1877 . 


. . . 


14 


" 30, 1878 . 


. 


13 

1877. 1878. 


of children who have been in the institutk 


)n less than 1 y 


ear, 209 222 










1 " b 


3t. 1 and 2 ye* 


irs, 77 112 












< 2 < 


' 3 ' 


76 59 












< 3 ' 


' 4 ' 


45 46 












' 4 ' 


' 5 ' 


« 25 26 












' 5 < 


' 6 < 


12 12 












' 6 < 


' 7 < 


19 8 












« 7 < 


< 8 ' 


7 6 












< 8 < 


< 9 < 


5 9 












' 9 < 


' 10 « 


6 1 












« 10 < 


' 11 < 


1 1 












' 11 « 


< 12 < 


1 1 












1 12 « 


' 13 « 


< 1 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



31 



STATEMENT OF WORK DONE IN No. 1 SEWING-ROOM. 

Average number employed daily, 20. Girls, 15 ; women, 3 ; boys, 2. 





Made. 


Repaired. 


Total. 


Aprons .... . . 


303 


125 


428 


Blankets 












11 


5 


16 


Caps .. 












- 


29 


29 


Chemises 


. 










193 


1 


194 


Coats . 












- 


2,941 


2,941 


Drawers 












276 


• 28 


304 


Dresses 












36 


95 


131 


Holders 












24 


- 


24 


Mittens 












93 


36 


129 


Nightdresses 












40 


- 


40 


Overalls 












9 


- 


9 


Pillowcases . 












- 


118 


118 


Pants (pairs) 












227 


3,629 


3,856 


Robe . 












- 


1 


1 


Shades (for eyes) 












9 


- 


9 


Sheets . 












36 


47 


83 


Shirts . 












617 


949 


1,566 


Skirts . 












365 


35 


400 


Spreads 












15 


22 


37 


Stockings (pairs) 












535 


3,826 


4,361 


Suspenders . 












64 


- 


64 


Tablecloths . 












5 


10 


15 


Ticks ... 












193 


234 


427 


Towels 












55 


207 


262 


Waists pants 












30 


- 


30 


Totals 










• 


3,136 


12,338 


15,474 



32 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



STATEMENT OF WORK DONE IN No. 2 SEWING-ROOM. 

Average number employed daily, 14. Girls, 13 ; women, 1. 



Eepaired. 



Total. 



Aprons 

Blankets 

Capes . 

Carpets 

Chemises 

Curtains 

Drawers 

Dresses 

Handkerchiefs 

Holders 

Hoods . 

Hats (trimmed) . 

Nightdresses 

Neckties 

Pillow-ticks . 

Pillow-ticks filled 

Sacks . 

Skirts . 

Sheets . 

Spreads 

Tablecloths . 

Ticks . 

Towels 

Under- vests . 

Waists 

Diapers 



Totals 



240 



5,115 



333 



242 



85 


- 


85 


- 


1 


1 


167 


- 


167 


6 


- 


6 


146 


- 


146 


385 


120 


505 


266 


- 


266 


18 


- 


18 


145 


- 


145 


146 


- 


146 


169 


— 


169 


- 


7 


7 


670 


- 


670 


650 


_ 


650 


49 


- 


49 


168 


- 


168 


363 


131 


494 


— 


61 


61 


5 


- 


5 


82 


- 


82 


372 


- 


372 


_ 


5 


5 


115 


_ 


115 


1,068 


— 


1,068 



5,448 



STATEMENT OF WORK DONE IN No. 3 SEWING-ROOM. 

Average number employed, 21. Women, 1; boys, 20, 
Pants made 1,000 pairs. 



Overalls made 
Jackets made 
Jackets cut and trimmed 
Flannel shirts made . 



50 
100 
700 
300 



STATEMENT OF WORK DONE IN SHOE-SHOP. 

Average number boys employed daily, 3. 
Number pairs shoes mended 2,346 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 



STATEMENT OF WOEK DONE IN LAUNDRY. 

Average number employed, 14. Men, 1; women, 6; boys, 7. 

Number pieces washed and ironed, officers . . . 17,923 
Number pieces washed and ironed, house . . . 15,862 
Number pieces washed and ironed, inmates . . . 207,543 



241,328 



GARDEN PRODUCE FOR 1878. 

Asparagus, bunches 450 

Apples, barrels 65 

Beans in pod, bushels 45 

Beans, Lima, bushels ....... 8 

Beans, shelled, bushels . . . . . . . 10 

Beets, blood, bushels 315 

Cabbage-heads 5,283 

Celery, bunches 480 

Currants, quarts 100 

Corn, sweet, dozen 850 

Corn, sweet, dry, bushels ...... 87 

Corn, pop, bushels 15 

Corn fodder, tons 2^- 

Cucumbers, bushels 20 

Lettuce, heads ......... 500 

Melons, water . . . 567 

Melons, musk 600 

Onions, bushels 135 

Pease in pod, bushels 37 

Pears, bushels 4^ 

Parsnips, bushels . . 82 

Raspberries, quarts . .65 

Strawberries, quarts . . . . . . 50 

Squash, summer, pounds . . . . . . . 200 

Squash, winter, pounds 7,200 

Turnips, English, bushels 200 

Tomatoes, bushels 140 

5 



34 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



FARM PRODUCE FOR 1878. 



Hay . . 150 tons. 

Rowen 63 " 

Milk . 120£ " 

Mowed oats . 10 " 

Hungarian grass . . ... . . 6 " 

Corn fodder 28 " 

Corn fodder, green ' . . 46 " 

Corn 700 bushels. 

Mangolds 1,500 " 

English turnips 1,200 " 

Euta-baga . 900 " 

Carrots 500 " 

Potatoes 565 " 

Apples, cider 500 " 

Apples, winter 150 barrels. 

Wood 18 cords. 

Lumber 2,000 feet. 

Wool 24 pounds. 

Beef . . .... . . . . 2,903 " 

Pork 12,053 " 

Mutton . . . . . . . . . . 1,347 " 

Veal 506 " 

Sheepskins ......... 26 

Calves sold . . . . . . . . 24 

Calves raised 17 

Pigs " 64 



1-78.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



35 



DETAILED ACCOUNT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES. 



Agricultural tools and seed . 
Beans and pease, 243 bushels 
Blacksmithing, plumbing, stock and tools 
Books, newspapers, postage, and stationery- 
Boots, shoes, and leather 
Brooms and brushes 
Clothing ... 
Coal, 573 tons . ... 
Carriages and repairs, harnesses and repairs 
Corn and oats, 1,104 bushels 
Crockery, glass, and wooden ware 
Dry goods .... 
Feed and meal, 63,499 pounds 
Fish, 12,786 pounds 
Furniture, beds, and bedding 
Gasolene and oil, 3,714 gallons 
Groceries, light 

flour, 873 barrels . 

molasses, 2,137 gallons 

sugar, 10,012 pounds 

rice, 4,794 pounds 

coffee, 2,846 pounds 

tea, 743 pounds 

butter, 1,277 pounds 



Hardware .... 

Hulled corn, oysters, and hominy 

Inspectors .... 

Inventory, two years 

Improvements and repairs 

Live stock .... 

Machines, sewing and knitting, and repairs 

Meat, 29,166 pounds . 

Medicine .... 

Milk 

Miscellaneous 

Painting and whitewashing . 

Salaries and wages 

Soap and soap stock 

Straw, hay, and pasturage 

Transportation, express, freight, and passengers 



$767 31 
5,690 77 
857 57 
869 84 
330 42 
297 54 
235 88 
279 83 



$748 38 
478 06 
266 28 
637 64 

1,976 02 
55 05 

5,145 59 

3,042 06 
757 09 
536 64 
404 14 

2,301 20 
728 03 
578 86 

1,112 46 
867 55 



9,329 


16 


572 


19 


186 


16 


419 


83 


200 00 


1,868 83 


834 


60 


113 


07 


1,805 


26 


166 


34 


382 70 


280 


85 


780 35 


14,889 50 


492 


33 


264 37 


1,275 12 



36 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

Vegetables $51 33 

Watch-boys 20 50 

$53,567 54 



Receipts. 

Amount received from unexpended appropriation 

of 1877 . . . . . J " . . . 17,453 89 
Cash received from appropriation, 1878 . . . 42,288 96 
Amount September schedule unpaid . . . 3,824 69 

— $53,567 54 

Cash received from board of truants, and sales . . . $899 60 
Paid State Treasurer 899 60 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



37 



PRINCIPAL'S REPORT. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen, — The Principal's Annual Report for the 
year ending Sept. 30, 1878, is herewith submitted. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Pupils in school Oct. 1, 1877 


327 


107 


434 


Admitted during the year . 
Admitted second time . 






201 
23 


108 
11 


309 
34 


Different pupils during the year . 
Discharged during the year . 
Largest number at any one time . 
Smallest number at any one time 






505 
195 
336 
313 


204 

65 

152 

121 


709 
260 
488 
434 


Average attendance 






_ 


_ 


443 


Remaining Sept. 30, 1878 . 






335 


150 


485 



Showing Range of Ages. 



Over fifteen years of age 
Under five years of age 
Between five and fifteen 



8 


10 


37 


31 


290 


109 



18 

68 

399 



Average age of pupils 



8 r2 y ears - 





Showing Classification. 








TEACHER. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


i 


Miss L. A. Palmer, two divisions 


68 




68 


2 


Miss M. P. Palmer, two divisions 


67 


_ 


67 


3 


Miss E. C. Dibble, two divisions 


64 


_ 


64 


4 


Miss E. M. Fullington 


72 


- 


72 


5 


Mrs. CO. Shepard, two divisions 


- 


66 


66 


6 


Miss M. J. H. Hamilton . 


20 


42 


62 


7 


Miss C. S. Clark .... 


27 


22 


49 




Too young to attend school 


17 


20 


37 



38 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 

Showing Studies pursued. 



[Oct. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Read in Anderson's Historical Reader 


15 


18 


33 


Read in Foster's Bible Stories 


56 


16 


72 


Read in Edwards's Fourth Reader 




56 


— 


56 


Read in Edwards's Third Reader 




39 


29 


68 


Read in Edwards's Second Reader 




62 


24 


86 


Read in Edwards's First Reader . 




26 


22 


48 


Study Geography- 






127 


48 


175 


Study Written Arithmetic . 






61 


21 


82 


Study Mental Arithmetic . 






106 


40 


146 


Study Multiplication Tables 






116 


32 


148 


Write in Writing-Books 






246 


69 


315 


Write on Slates . 






28 


13 


41 


Study Grammar . 






61 


- 


61 


Study History .... 






61 


- 


61 


Study Physiology ...... 


61 


- 


61 



It will be seen that the average school attendance is con- 
siderably larger than that of last year ; which is accounted 
for in part, of course, by the increase of numbers in this 
department of the institution, but largely by the decrease in 
the average at the hospital. It will also be noticed that the 
average age of pupils is somewhat younger than last year. 
It is seldom that a child under ten is called for to go into a 
family ; and, as the custom of retaining children in the school 
for six months has been abandoned, the older ones are often 
removed soon after their arrival : consequently the average 
age is on the decrease. Seven schools have been maintained 
throughout the year, with an extra class during the fall and 
winter. With some exceptions, the teachers have been effi- 
cient and faithful, and many of the scholars have made com- 
mendable progress in their studies ; but too many changes 
have taken place in the corps of teachers, for the schools to 
realize the best results from the year's labors. One school 
has had four different teachers during the year, another three, 
and so on, sixteen in all being employed during the year. It 
must be admitted that so many interruptions are detrimental 
to the interests of the schools, because the children are much 
of the time in an unsettled state of mind. Each teacher 
brings different ideas of discipline, and of the best methods of 
imparting instruction : and much valuable time is lost in be- 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 39 

coming acquainted with the new order of exercises which 
each change necessitates. I do not know as these changes 
could have been avoided. Those teachers who left, with one 
exception, resigned in due form. It is something, probably, 
which is liable to occur in the history of any year ; but we 
hope the school will be more fortunate in future, and that 
interruptions of this character will be less frequent. In se- 
lecting teachers, the greatest possible care should always be 
exercised to employ only the best, and only those who intend 
to make teaching their profession. In my opinion, teachers 
should be required to pass an examination before entering 
upon duty, as they are obliged to do in the public schools of 
the Commonwealth. The compensation should be graded 
according to the teacher's experience, and general fitness for 
the work. The present system allows the same salary to all, 
regardless of their qualifications, experience, or the grade of 
the school assigned them. 

Many improvements have been made in and about the 
schoolrooms, which add materially to the comfort of both 
scholars and teachers. The room used as a chapel has been 
converted into a schoolroom, provided with desks, maps, 
charts, blackboards, and all the necessary appliances. It is 
well adapted to the use for which it was fitted up, and was 
a much-needed improvement. Alterations have also been 
made in the room occupied by the lowest class in the boys' 
department, making it one of the most comfortable and 
pleasant rooms we have. The partition between the two 
small rooms formerly occupied by the fifth and sixth schools 
has been removed, and both turned into one, giving us a com- 
modious, light, and well-ventilated room, which is now occu- 
pied by the first class of girls. All of the school furniture 
has been repaired where needed, a new teacher's desk placed 
in every room, all of the rooms painted and whitewashed ? 
and a generous supply of globes, maps, charts, &c, provided 
for general use in the schools. There have been added to 
the children's library about two hundred volumes of well- 
selected books, making in all five hundred volumes in the 
library, mostly in good condition. The children are now well 
supplied with suitable reading matter ; but we need a larger 
supply of picture-books and papers for the amusement and 
instruction of the little ones. There has been purchased for 



40 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

the use of the teachers, " The Encyclopaedia Britannica," also 
a copy of " The Cyclopaedia of Education," which we hope 
forms the nucleus of a teacher's library. Some twenty-five 
chromos and engravings have been purchased, and placed 
upon the walls of" the schoolrooms, adding much to the im- 
proved surroundings of the children. The above additions 
and improvements were made possible by the action of the 
last legislature, which gave us a generous appropriation for 
the purpose. 

The sabbath schools have been conducted as in former 
years, by the teachers in their several rooms. We should be 
in favor of assembling all the children in one room for sab- 
bath instruction, if we had one large enough to accommodate 
them. As it is, we are obliged to hold as many different 
sabbath, as week-day schools. Each school in turn is re- 
quired to prepare a recitation for the sabbath-evening devo- 
tional exercises; but we are unable at the present time to 
hold a general concert, for want of room. During the spring 
the religious interest which pervaded all classes of people 
in this and adjacent towns and villages was quite perceptibly 
felt here among the children, as well as the adult inmates 
of the institution. Not less than sixty of the children ex- 
pressed a desire, and many earnestly sought, to conform their 
lives to the standards of Christianity, and, we have no doubt, 
firmly resolved to live upright and true lives ; their daily 
conduct certainly giving evidence in favor of this conclusion. 
We are not of those who believe it impossible for children 
to have serious thoughts in relation to their spiritual welfare ; 
but, on the contrary, believe the period of childhood to be 
the most favorable time of life in which to submit the will 
to the influence of the overruling Power, and begin the 
foundation for a strong and steadfast Christian character. 
We believe it to be our duty to try to impress upon the 
minds and hearts of these unfortunate ones committed to 
our care, the importance of this subject, and to use everv 
means within our reach to give them correct ideas of life, and 
its relation to the future. Meetings have been held by their 
request at the school, in which they have always seemed 
deeply interested. The number who will live new lives, or 
the amount of good accomplished, it is of course impossible 
to estimate. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

The singing, which for many years has been a prominent 
feature of the school, has not the past year been kept quite 
up to the standard, for the reason that we have not had any 
regular music-teacher. The work has been performed chief- 
ly by two of the school-teachers, who have taken the charge 
in turn, one week at a time. While they are both well qual- 
ified to teach the children to sing, the work would be much 
more efficiently done, could one alone be held responsible for 
it. Teaching music in this school is hard work, and the 
amount of labor and patience required to accomplish all that 
is possible should be liberally paid for. 

The schools have been so classified as to admit of alter- 
nate study and labor. A considerable amount of labor has 
been performed by the children upon the farm, in the dining- 
hall, kitchen, bakery, and other departments of the institu- 
tion : yet a large number of the boys are without any steady 
employment. I believe every boy who is old enough should 
have some kind of work provided for him at least three or 
four hours every day. The amount of time spent by the 
boys in the play-yard is too great. To them, excepting those 
who can be induced to spend a part of the time in reading, 
this kind of life becomes monotonous, irksome, and prolific 
of many evil habits. Give all a few hours each day of 
healthy work, and they will return to their schools with 
increased desires for study, make more rapid progress, and 
sooner be fitted for a place in the world. 

The outward appearance of the children has been greatly 
improved during the year; they have never before been so 
well clothed since my connection with the school, and our 
improved washing facilities have made it possible to have 
them present a more tidy aspect than they have in former 
years : yet many things remain to be improved before the 
school can become what it should be, or accomplish all with- 
in its power to do. We need very much an assembly-room, 
— a place where all our inmates can be brought together and 
seated, without exposing them to a poisoned atmosphere, or 
to cold air from open windows. Such a room would be of 
great benefit to the school. Lectures, concerts, readings, and 
other entertainments might be resorted to as means of break- 
ing the monotony of institution life, and as helps to reform, 
elevate, and fit these children for lives of usefulness. An- 
6 



42 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

other pressing need is larger and improved bathing facilities. 
The basement which in winter is used by the boys as a sit- 
ting-room is entirely unfit for the purpose, — is low, damp, 
and without proper means of ventilation. I believe the 
health of the children, in some instances, has been seriously 
affected by being obliged to sit in this room, and that its use 
for this purpose should be discontinued as soon as possible. 

My intercourse with the superintendent and all the offi- 
cers has been pleasant and agreeable ; for their uniform 
courtesy they have my thanks. 

To the Board of Inspectors, for the interest they have 
shown in every thing pertaining to the welfare of the school, 
as well as for their personal kindness to me, I am deeply in- 
debted. 

With a profound sense of our obligation to Him who has 
prospered us another year, I close this report. 

Respectfully, 

J. C. TIBBETTS, Principal 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



43 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Inspectors of the State Primary School. 

Gentlemen, — In obedience to regulations, it becomes 
my duty at this time to make a report to you of the medical 
department for the institution year ending Sept. 30, 1878. 



Number remaining in hospital, Sept. 30, 1877 


52 


" admitted during the year .... 


546 


" births «««•«. 


3 


" deaths "'"■". 


13 


" discharged «<«««'«. 


553 


" remaining in hospital .... 


45 



No names have been placed on the records of the hospital 
unless they have remained over twenty-four hours. 

Of the thirteen deaths, five only belonged to the Primary 
School. Six were two years and under, and two over seven- 
teen years old. Four died of consumption ; two each of diph- 
theria, membranous croup, and cholera infantum ; one each 
of scrofula, effusion on brain, and convulsions from teething. 

No epidemic has prevailed among the children of the insti- 
tution during the year past. While Monson and Palmer 
have been visited with diphtheria, which prevailed alarmingly 
at times during the year, taking all the children of some 
families, we have been very fortunate here ; and I attribute it 
largely to the excellent drainage, care, and early attention to 
the cases that showed any symptoms of the disease. The two 
fatal cases were of the most malignant type, and died in a 
few hours after admission to the hospital. There have been 
sixteen unmistakable cases during the year, fourteen of 
which recovered. 

Ophthalmia has prevailed to quite an extent at times, more 
especially after receiving recruits from Tewksbury. Not un- 
frequently we have an addition of six or eight new cases 
within forty-eight hours after their arrival. I am happy to 
say that at the present time we have a less number of cases 
than at any time during the whole year. 



44 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. '78. 

The hospital building has been clapboarded and painted 
on the outside, the inside painted, grained, and whitewashed, 
the walls adorned with chromos ; all of which adds to the 
cheerfulness of the wards and happiness of the children. 
An addition of a kitchen and dining-room for the convales- 
cent (now nearly completed) will add to their comfort, as 
they will not be obliged to eat in the room where they sleep, 
as heretofore. 

While so much has been done, another important factor 
which needs attention comes in, — that of ventilation ; and 
this seems absolutely necessary to fill the bill. 

Another comfort has been provided by the superintendent 
for the convalescent, and sore-eyed children, by placing awn- 
ings or long tent-covers, under which the children could sit 
or play in the open air, without being in the hot sun. This 
has been of very great benefit and help to recovery of the 
sick and feeble ones, especially to the ophthalmic cases. 

It has been the aim of all who have had the especial care 
of the sick and invalided, to see that they are fed with good 
nutritious food. As good milk as can be found in the State, 
pure and unadulterated, enters largely into their diet in this 
hospital ; and they have it without stint, cream and all. 

To the nurses, Mrs. St. John of the girls', and Mr. James 
Lally of the boys' wards, I feel that we are greatly indebted 
for their unremitting vigilance in caring for and nursing 
those who have been sick. I cannot speak too highly of 
them, and their work by day, and watching by night with 
the severely sick. We might feel ourselves fortunate, if we 
could be assured of as good care in our sickness as these chil- 
dren receive at their hands. Aside from those in hospital 
who require their care constantly, are large numbers who 
attend school ; chronic cases that go up every morning to 
take medicine ; cuts, burns, and sprains to be dressed, &c, 
keeping these nurses in constant work ; and then, the cook- 
ing, washing (in part), and keeping the wards neat and clean, 
occupying them early and late. My thanks are due to them, 
as well as to you, gentlemen inspectors, superintendent, and 
officers of the institution. 

(Signed) WM. HOL BROOK, Physician. 



SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ADVISORY BOARD 



REPORT OF THE ADVISORY BOARD. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

Gentlemen, — The Advisory Board of Women herewith 
present their Second Annual Report : — 

The State Primary School has been visited each month by 
at least one member, and frequently during the year by the 
full board. 

We have made verbal suggestions to the superintendent 
from time to time as we have visited the institution ; and, in 
our quarterly reports to the Board of State Charities, we have 
recommended various changes and improvements. These 
reports were transmitted to the trustees, and have been cour- 
teously received and considered. 

The law creating the board provides " that they shall have 
access at all hours of the day or night to the portions of said 
institutions used or occupied by the women and children 
there maintained at the public expense, and the officers of 
said institutions shall furnish said advisory board with all 
the information concerning the condition and treatment of 
their inmates, which the members of said board shall re- 
quire." It is also provided that said advisory board shall 
make a quarterly report " in relation to the condition, treat- 
ment, and needs of the inmates of said institutions, with 
such suggestions and recommendations as they shall deem 
expedient and proper." It must be apparent, that as the Act 
gives no authority to make changes in the management of 
the institutions, but only to make suggestions of changes 
that are deemed advisable, the value of the work done by 
the board, so far as it affects the condition of the inmates, 
depends entirely upon the willingness of trustees and super- 
intendent to carry such suggestions into practice. In other 
words, we have responsibility without power. We regret to 
say, that, on the part of the superintendent, there has seemed 



4 PRI ARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

to be very little desire to carry out any of our recommenda- 
tions; and in April last, while making our inspection, he 
stated to us, that, up to that time, no changes had been made 
in the institution on account of suggestions by us. This 
institution, more than all others in the State, needs the judg- 
ment and care of women. Here are congregated between 
four and five hundred children under seventeen years of age, 
to be cared for physically, mentally, and morally ; in a word, 
to be so trained in the institution that they can be placed 
out in families, and in time become self-supporting citizens and 
heads of families in this and other States. The women of 
Massachusetts are especially fitted for this work. We shall 
agree, we think, that the home training of women teaches 
them the economies in providing food and clothing, knowl- 
edge of the quality and preparation of food, and an interest 
in the general education of children. The most that can be 
done for the girls is to so train and educate them that they 
can be placed out in families. Who, better than the house- 
keepers of the State, know the training necessary for girls to 
assist in that work ? 

Our inspections during the past year have made us feel 
more forcibly than at our last report the necessity of radical 
changes in the management of the institution. At the Pri- 
mary School the superintendent is appointed by the Gov- 
ernor ; at some of the other institutions the trustees have the 
appointing power. That the trustees should have the ap- 
pointment of the superintendent seems to us most important. 
Our observation of institutions where the superintendent is 
directly responsible to the trustees, leads us to feel that in 
practice such a system has many advantages over that exist- 
ing at Monson. If the trustees are to be made responsible 
for the proper expenditure of appropriations, they ought to 
have the right to select their own agents to carry into effect 
their views. In our opinion, the system at Monson has failed 
to give creditable results. The condition of the institution 
is not such as we can approve ; and we think it would not be 
satisfactory to the people of the State. We consider it 
largely the fault of the system adopted by the State, rather 
than the neglect of individual duty. So long as the Gov- 
ernor has the appointment of the superintendent, just so long 
will the trustees be powerless to make radical changes. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 49 

In view of these and other reasons, we ask that the gov- 
ernment of the State Primary School may be vested in a 
board of seven trustees, a part of whom shall be women ; 
that the trustees shall have power to appoint and remove 
the superintendent and other officers in charge of the school, 
and to make such rules and regulations for its government as 
may be necessary. 

The condition of the institution has been but little im- 
proved during the past year. Lack of administrative ability 
is plainly manifest. Very inadequate results have been real- 
ized from the increased appropriations. Thoroughness in 
details, when changes are made, is lacking. 

The hospital has been enlarged, but no arrangement made, 
although repeatedly urged, for the washing of the children's 
linen, which cannot be sent to the laundry. In the future, as 
it has been in the past, it will be washed in the bath-tub con- 
nected with the hospital. An awning was placed over the 
open space in front of the hospital for the use of convales- 
cent children ; but no seats were provided, and the children 
were obliged to sit on the ground, if they remained in the 
open air. 

New out-buildings have been placed in the play-yards, but, 
owing to improper construction and care, are already most 
objectionable. 

The basement assembly-rooms, where the children congre- 
gate, are so ill ventilated that it is impossible for any one 
accustomed to breathe pure air to remain in them. No at- 
tempt has been made to improve their condition, although 
the appropriation was deemed so ample, that a model hen- 
house, with all the modern improvements, could be built at a 
cost of over two hundred and ninety dollars. 

The school-rooms have been improved. There are seven 
schools in summer, and eight in winter. Seventeen tempo- 
rary and permanent teachers have been employed during the 
year. The children for the most part remain in the school 
but two hours and a half each day, five days in the week. 
Cleansing the children's heads, which should be done in the 
bath-room or dormitory, occupies a part of even these few 
hours. 

The different rooms vary so much in cleanliness and venti- 

7 



50 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

lation that it is apparent that no systematic supervision 
exists. 

The children present an untidy appearance, — buttons off 
their garments, hair uncombed, hands unwashed, &c. 

When a head cook was to be selected, a man who had been 
night-watchman and farm-laborer was promoted to the place. 
This does not seem to us requisite training for so responsible 
a position, where both economy and health ought to be 
considered. Butter once a week has been added to the diet ; 
but skimmed milk is still furnished instead of the real 
article. 

The average number in hospital upon inspection six times 
this summer was forty-eight. The larger number of patients 
were suffering from sore eyes. The nurse states that they 
easily relapse after temporary convalescence. The sanitary 
condition of an institution is quite as surely tested by the 
general health condition of its inmates, as by the number of 
deaths which occur during the year. It is quite possible for 
children to live even under very unfavorable sanitary condi- 
tions. 

Fault-finding is a disagreeable duty ; and we have selected 
but a few out of many things which of themselves may be 
thought trivial, but in the aggregate are sufficient to produce 
a result wholly unsatisfactory. We also think that the 
failure to place out any considerable number of children 
each year is largely the result of this unsatisfactory condition 
of things. 

We repeat our recommendation of last year, that first-class 
help be substituted for the pauper help now employed. The 
law authorizing the employment of pauper help should be 
repealed. 

We also recommend that children sent here by the Courts 
be transferred to the Reform Schools when, in the judgment 
of trustees and superintendent, it is deemed advisable. 
Under the existing law it is extremely difficult for a transfer 
to be made. Persons giving most attention to the work of 
improving the condition of poor children insist that no insti- 
tution should be permitted to gather within its walls the 
unfortunate and criminal youth. 

We advocate these last two measures as important for the 
improvement of the school; but we have no faith that these 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 51 

or all other measures advocated could ever place the institu- 
tion in a satisfactory condition, unless, first of all, the system 
of administering the institution is changed, and authority 
and responsibility are vested in the same persons. 

Respectfully submitted. 

ADELAIDE A. CALKINS. 
GEORGIANNA A. BOUTWELL. 
ADELE GRANGER WINTHROP. 

Oct. 15, 1878. 



I)